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The Builder Magazine 

October 1919 - Volume V - Number 10 



Early last Spring, when the development of the armistice proved that peace was 
shortly to be concluded between the Allied and the Central Powers, and that the peace 
was to be a dictated peace, the Grand Lodge of England invited the Grand Masters 
and Grand Secretaries of the Grand Lodges in all English-speaking countries to 
participate in a celebration of the happy event, during the week of June 23-29, 1919. It 
was not presumed at the time the invitations were issued, that the final signing of the 
Peace Treaty would be delayed as late as the above date. It was fortunate, and indeed 
striking, in a way, that the signatures of the various plenipotentiaries were actually 
affixed to the Treaty during the week selected. 

Those brethren who represented our American Grand Lodges in London in response 
to the invitation were as follows: Arizona, A. A. Johns, P.G.M., Morris Goldwater, 
P.G.M.; California, William Rhodes Hervey, P.G.M., John Whicher G.S.; Colorado, 
C.M. Kellogg, G.M., Charles H. Jacobson, G.S.; District of Columbia, Joseph H. 
Milans, G.M., A.W. Johnston, G.S.; Florida, T. Picton Warlow, G.M.; Georgia, 
Robert G. Travis, G.M., Raymond Daniel, A.G.S.; Iowa, George L. Schoonover, 
P.G.M.; Kentucky, John H. Cowles, P.G.M.; Louisiana Rudolph Krause, G.M., John 
A. Davilla, G. S., Massachusetts, Frederick W. Hamilton, P.G.M., G.S.; Michigan, 
Hugh A. McPherson, G.M., Lou B. Winsor, G. S.; Montana Major Dr. R. E. 
Hathaway, S.G.W.; Nebraska, John Ehrhardt, P.G.M., Francis E. White, G. S.; New 
Jersey, Austin McGregor, G. M.; New York, W.S. Farmer, G.M., Robert J. 
Kenworthy, G.S., Townsend Scudder, P.G.M.; West Virginia George S. Laidley, 
G.M., John M. Collins, P.G.M., G.S.-a total of twenty seven. 

There were also present representatives of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland, 
British Guiana, Burma, Ceylon, Eastern Archipelago, Gibraltar, Hong Kong and 
South China, Jamaica, Madras, Newfoundland, New Zealand, Nigeria, Queensland, 
South America and Victoria (Australia), of Britain's Overseas Dominions. 

In the number present, and in representation from all parts of the globe, it was 
undoubtedly the most representative and notable gathering in the history of Anglo- 
Saxon Freemasonry, and as such deserves careful consideration, because of its 
Significance for the future weal of Masonry, as well as of all civilization. 

SHALL FREEMASONRY, as represented in the English-speaking Countries of the 
world, make a decided stand in the reconstruction period now begun in behalf of those 
age-old principles which are its heritage, and endeavor to convince the world of the 
necessity for their recognition as a method of saving the future? Is the kind of 
Democracy in which Masonry believes and of which it is in truth a pattern, to be 
preserved to coming generations, to the end that the prophecies of the brotherhood of 
man shall not continue to be a mirage ? 

These are, in effect, the questions which it was intended that the Peace Jubilee of the 
Grand Lodge of England should answer. No agenda of the meeting was published, 
and no one ever spoke these questions publicly. But it was taken for granted that 
Anglo-Saxons, representing all the English-speaking countries of the earth, and 
closely in touch with the world-problems pushed to the front as a result of the war, 
could by no chance gather together in a joint conference, without answering them. 

Nor was it intended that what visiting delegations should utter would be direct 
answers to any such question. Yet it was as certain as anything human is certain, that 
once this group of brethren assembled, loyalty to the mother- tongue and veneration of 
a joint heritage of principles would compel that unity of spirit which alone can settle 
these questions, and bring true brotherhood to a world thrown out of joint. 

It must have been something like this which inspired the call for this meeting. It must 
have been a comprehension, perhaps more or less dim, that some such significance 
would attach to the proposed meeting, which caused representatives twenty-seven in 
number, hailing from sixteen States of the American Union to leave their homes and 

their business to attend, at a time when every American feels that his personal 
problems demand his individual attention. Some good omen must have appeared in 
the sky. The attendance from the States was much larger than those of us in touch 
with the probabilities of things expected, only a few weeks previously. To those who 
attended, and to those others who will hear from their lips the story of Masonic 
reconstruction already begun, the prophecies will seem well fulfilled. 

A glance at the program of the week will reveal little of the significance which has 
been thus expressed. A reception dinner by Grand Lodge, luncheons and dinners with 
nine or ten other London lodges, visits to The Royal Masonic Institution for Boys and 
another to that conducted for Girls, visits to various places of interest in and near the 
city of London, a dinner with the Lord Mayor, at the Mansion House, a three hour 
session of the Grand Lodge itself, (this being the formal Peace Celebration proper,) 
and various other courtesies these, with no mention whatever of any conference, do 
not convey a real conception of what this week of Jubilee meant, or was intended to 

For be it known that when your Englishman wants to talk seriously with you, and has 
a real desire to get acquainted with you and measure you, he does not tell you that this 
is his purpose. Instead, he invites you to dinner. After dinner, you talk, briefly and to 
the point. If he gives you his confidence, you are ready to deny all the stories you ever 
heard about him being an "imperturbable person," for you find him, at least in 
Masonic circles, with his guards down, and a real, living heart palpitating underneath. 
This, at least, was the experience of the delegations from the United States. They met 
the heads of English Masonry at these luncheons, under conditions most ideal, not 
wishing to understand one whit more than the English Masons wanted to be 
understood, and to understand us. 

The discussions, if such may be called the exchanges of opinion and of good will 
which characterized all these festivities, took the form of after-dinner toasts. An 
English brother, after the formal toasts had been responded to, would propose the 
health of "Our Visitors," and couple with it the names of those American brethren 
who were designated to make the responses. In every case the proposal of this 
particular toast was accompanied by expressions of esteem, friendliness and a wish to 
understand us which must needs be accepted at par. There could be no thought but 
that the proposer voiced the genuine desire of the English brethren, or that the motive 

underlying his remarks was a good motive. Frankly and openly were we greeted, not 
as "cousins," but as brothers enlisted in the cause of humanity. The hand of fellowship 
was extended, palm opened upwards. The English Masonic leaders, understanding the 
needs of the world as they saw them, wanted us to know and appreciate the spirit in 
which they faced those problems, and did not hesitate to hope for an equally frank 
expression of American opinion upon the same subjects. 

Received in such a spirit, the American representative could do no less than grasp the 
hand of fellowship so graciously tendered, particularly when what had been said of 
welcome and of hopefulness for the future was so exactly in accord with the things 
which we, too, have come to see are the great needs of our Craft. And as the week 
wore on, friendships ripened in a never to be forgotten manner. We began to 
understand and appreciate both the men who preside over the destiny of England's 
Masonry, and their opinions. Everything which a host could do to insure the happiness 
and tranquility of his guest was done. Every word which would tend toward the 
elimination of reserve was spoken. Consciously was this done at first the passage of 
the days caused it to become unconscious. The Anglo-Saxon was coming into his 
own. He was understanding himself, and his brethren. 

No summary of the meetings held with the various London lodges would be complete 
which did not take account of the admirable personality of H. R. H. Lord Ampthill, 

Pro Grand Master, who performed the function of Worshipful Master in one lodge and 
Installing Officer of another with no less of grace and dignity than characterized his 
presiding over Grand Lodge itself. Withal he was so human that for most of us at 
least, he ceased to be a part of Royalty to us, we forgot all else save his breadth of 
understanding and his gracious fellowship. We had no opportunity, unhappily, to meet 
the Grand Master, the Duke of Connaught, for the reason that he was so indisposed 
physically as to be unable to be present at any of the functions. A message from his 
own pen expressed his regret for his illness, which was a source of great 
disappointment to us all. His warm fraternal greeting to us was deeply appreciated, 
none the less, and one of the prized souvenirs presented to us was a beautiful 
colorgravure of the Duke himself. 

Of the reception accorded us in the various London lodges, one could not speak in 
appreciation without distinctions between them, and there were none such. Warm and 
sympathetic and fraternal they all were, memorable to all. If the joint meeting with 

"Antiquity No. 2" and "Royal Somerset House and Inverness No. 4" had any 
characteristic more notable than the others, it was only in the fact that neither is 
chartered by the Grand Lodge of England, nor has a Warrant, because each is older 
than the Grand Lodge itself ! To sit in these lodges is to realize something of what 
"time immemorial" means. 

We had opportunity to Witness the installation of a Worshipful Master, and took an 
extra breath when he calmly announced his appointees, beginning with the Wardens 
and running through a list longer than most of ours. The Master is the only elective 
officer in the English lodge, all the others being appointive. We saw all of the three 
degrees conferred in full, and were struck with the simplicity and brevity of the work. 
The approximate time of conferring each of the degrees was, E. A., twenty minutes, F. 
C. about the same, and the Raising occupied about thirty-five minutes. Let it be set 
down that there was no emasculation of a single vital point or part. Nor was there a 
mere rush of lip service. The work was done with dignity and solemnity, without 
verbiage or redundance, or slurring of syllables. Leisurely and understanding^ it was 
done, and, while probably less than one-third as many words were used, the essentials 
were in no wise neglected. Where as a rule our American rituals are extended, theirs 
were condensed; where we dramatize, they explained. They can teach us much in the 
matter of ritual. 

It is not, however, the puipose of this article to argue from the impressions gained. A 
chronicle of the events is asked, and a chronicle it shall be, reserving perhaps for a 
further discussion, the tremendous themes which were suggested by attendance upon 
these various functions. 

If there is to an American visitor an apparent lack in the intercommunication between 
the lodges of the various classes, a loss of something which we in America dearly 
prize, it cannot be said that within the lodges themselves there is anything but the 
closest, most intimate brotherhood. Their numbers are few, but their tastes are similar, 
their understanding is complete, and their meetings, formal though they may be, are 
satisfying in the extreme. Again there is the temptation to speak in more detail, for it 
is in matters of ritual and internal efficiency and fellowship that, with one exception, 
we can leam most from our English brethren. 

That one exception, however, overtops all the others. It is in the matter of their 
charities. Whatever of social unity may be lacking between the lodges which compose 
the Grand Lodge of England, certainly they are one in their humanitarian instincts. 
Their financial support of their Boys' and Girls' Schools makes our American efforts 
in this direction, even the most pretentious, loom small in comparison. Consider their 
annual expenditures mount to something like five dollars per capita on their entire 
membership - this sum taking no account whatever of endowments - and you begin to 
realize what the joint efforts of the lodges of England are accomplishing. These sums 
too, come from individual pocketbooks, not from lodge treasuries. 

We visited these Schools. They are not carried on in a way to "institutionalize" the 
children. They are educated in civic duty, and account is taken of the part which they 
are hereafter to play as men and women of the Empire. The Arts and Sciences receive 
attention, along with practical tradesmanship. Their teachers are as a rule products of 
the schools themselves, this being particularly true of the Girls' School. The result is a 
family relationship, and a family tradition, too, which makes for a splendid morale. 

The climax of the entire week was the three hour session of the Grand Lodge at Royal 
Albert Hall. The introduction of the twenty- five visiting deputations, each under 
escort of two Grand Stewards, was itself productive of a deep impression upon the 
visitors, and no doubt also upon the nine thousand members of the Grand Lodge of 
England there assembled. As one of the visitors, I confess my inability to describe the 
emotions which surged through me when, after being for many presented to the Pro 
Grand Master, I was directed to the seat assigned to me and faced the throng. The 
appeal to the eye was in itself inspiring. Nine thousand brethren, dressed in the light 
blue regalia designating the officers of the lodges represented, gathered together in 
that enormous oval building, filling its main floor and the six surrounding galleries; 
the Grand Stewards with their red collars, seated in two rows on the main floor and 
forming a cross against the back ground in light blue symbolized in a very real sense 
the Masonry of England. The knowledge that thousands could not be assigned to seats 
bespoke the intense interest felt in the event. The deep blue of the officials banked in 
rows upon the rostrum formed a harmonious contrast indeed. 

There was an appeal to ear. The voluminous melody from the enormous organ had no 
sooner filled the great audience chamber than one realized the awesome import of the 
world-derived gathering. Then those English brethren sang. Their National Anthem 

our own in everything but the words employed "Now thank we all our God" and "O 
God, our help in ages past." It was a unique commentary upon the universal belief in 
the righteousness of the Allied Cause that this latter song, long suppressed as 
unfratemal and unchristian, was revived, and sung with the fervor of crusaders 
returned from the overthrow of the antichrist. The business of the occasion was the 
Peace Jubilee, expressed in the formalism of moving an address of loyalty to the King, 
unanimously carried, of course, the unanimous passage of a resolution expressing the 
sentiments of the Craft toward His Majesty's Forces, and a motion tendering the floor 
to M.W. Bro. W. S. Farmer, Grand Master of New York, M. W. Frederick W. 
Hamilton, P. G. M. of Massachusetts, and M. W. Bro. W. H. Wardrope, Grand Master 
of the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. The addresses of the Pro 
Grand Master, Lord Ampthill, and Brother Right Hon. T. F. Halsey, P. C., the Deputy 
Grand Master, were upon a high plane, scholarly, refined and warmly fraternal in their 
tone, and were ably responded to by the American and Overseas Dominions 
representatives. Brief, one and all, modest, Anglo-Saxon to the core. 

It is a peculiarity of the English that the one way in which they give free expression to 
their emotions is through some formal, prescribed method a ritual, or a song. The 
pleading or exaltation of the orator they seem to disdain. But given a ritual, or a song, 
they will render or sing it, as the case may be, with a dignity, expressiveness and 
whole-heartedness which puts to shame the studied oration so common to our Western 
system. It carries conviction to man; one must needs believe that the Most High is 
attuned to such expression as well, for reverence colored the tone of the voices of the 
throng, in a definite though indescribable manner. 

Schooled as we had become in the methods of expression of these people we could 
not misunderstand the music of English Masonry thus presented to us. If it was awe- 
inspiring, it was heartrending, too, for the hozannas were tinged with a great sorrow, 
though no suggestion of loved one lying in Flanders fields was worn. The 
commemorative jewel of the occasion was at one with the spirit of the day, and we 
who had come thousands of miles to join in that day left the stupendous Albert Hall 
hushed and reverent and chastened we had truly seen the great soul of English 
Masonry, and were to carry its remembrance to the end of time. 



The following article, written by the author of "The Column of Beauty" published 
heretofore, takes a broad and philosophical view of Freemasonry as a whole. One may 
study Masonry from the circumference to the center, from the details to the general, 
and such is always worth while; he may also study it from the center to the 
circumference, from the whole to the parts, and this also is richly worth while, as the 
following essay will show. 

TO MOST, if not all, of us, the recollection of our Initiation, Passing, and Raising is 
fresh and vivid, and stands out from among our subsequent Masonic experiences with 
a clearness to be explained by the novelty of the situations in which we found 
ourselves, and by the solemnity of the ceremonies in which we took part for the first 
time. We perceived, then, that Freemasonry had a message for us, if we could only 
comprehend it, and we relied on the knowledge of our more experienced brethren to 
explain to us the many mysteries hidden beneath the ceremonies and symbols of the 
lodge. As we continued carefully to imbibe the lessons emanating from the East, 
much that to us had seemed dark became brighter; but we felt there was still much to 
leam. It is true that each symbol and symbolic act in the lodge was separately 
explained, and its moral and Masonic uses elucidated; but the detached parts of 
Freemasonry were never, in our opinion, satisfactorily united into one comprehensive 
whole, a knowledge of which is necessary in order that the "Noble Science" may have 
the influence on our lives and conduct, which is its chief end. My purpose, therefore, 
is to endeavour to demonstrate that the allegories and symbols of the lodge have a 
correspondence with each other, and are in the nature of hieroglyphics which can be 
pieced together and made to reveal, when deciphered, the lessons they were intended 
to convey. But as symbols are, from their nature, susceptible of various meanings, and 
as all investigators, no matter how honest their intensions may be, are liable to assign 
forced interpretations to some of them, in order that they may fit into a pre-conceived 
plan, it is necessary that their pronouncements be submitted to the most rigorous tests, 
lest Error and not Truth be the result. 

The magnitude of my theme and the necessarily limited space allotted to me for this 
lecture, have caused me to make condensations which detract from the leanness of my 
arguments, which would require treatment beyond the scope of a short address. 
However, I lay the results of my investigations before you, begging your indulgence 
for presenting, in mere outline, a subject of such immense importance. 

With this explanatory foreword, I shall now proceed to the subject matter of my 

There are three aspects of Freemasonry to which I invite your attention: 

1. Freemasonry as Philosophy. 

2. Freemasonry as Education. 

3. Freemasonry as the Handmaid of Religion. 

These three aspects are sufficiently wide in their scope to deserve much more time for 
their individual development than is at present at my disposal. A word or two, 
however, may help to explain my reason for placing them Philosophy, Education, 
Religion in the order here presented. 

Philosophy may be conceived as the science which lays down the principles 
governing conduct that which states the Moral Ideal; Education, as the means by 
which that ideal is attained, or, at least, approached; and Religion as the outcome of 
the two the experience of the individual while realizing, or partially realizing, the 
Ideal. While these conceptions, no doubt, suggest my divisions of the subject of my 

lecture, and the order in which they are placed, I fear that, in my treatment of them, I 
may frequently lose sight of any method which is intended in my design. Indeed, I 
cannot pretend that this lecture is worthy of being regarded otherwise than as the 
expression of random thoughts arising out of the careful contemplation of our 
ceremonies and symbols, and serious speculation as to their meanings. 


To the philosophical student it will be obvious, in the course of my remarks, that I use 
the word "Philosophy" in a very loose way. In the first division of my subject I shall 
touch upon the ideal of life, the nature of the self and the nature of knowledge. In the 
third the nature of God and the Immortality of the Soul will be among the problems 
considered problems which lie as much in the province of Philosophy as the three 
treated under the first head. Perhaps it would have been better to have made a sharper 
distinction and substituted "Ethics" or "Moral Philosophy" for the word "Philosophy" 
employed here; but, if you will bear in mind this explanation, it seems to me 
convenient to allow the term to stand. 

"Philosophy is the pursuit of Truth." This is the first and simplest conception and 
definition of Philosophy we can form. Can we, with truth, substitute the word 
Freemasonry for Philosophy in that definition? Such a question propounded in a 
Freemason's lodge can be answered only in the affirmative. The pursuit of Truth, 
called by us the search for the Lost Word, is indeed the sole aim and the chief end of 
all the teachings of Freemasonry. 

But I do not forget that we are distinctly informed that the "Chief Point of 
Freemasonry" is the promotion of the happiness of the individual, and, consequently, 
of society. That is insisted on in the Charge to the Brethren in the Installation 
Ceremony. The ancient Greek moralists also considered that happiness is "the great 
end of man, that this is the highest good, the end for which all beings live, the object 
which they all pursue." In this respect, also, Freemasonry agrees with other 
philosophies in its definition of the chief end of man. 

It may be asked, then, What is the aim of Freemasonry? Is it Truth or Happiness ? 
There seems to be no doubt that Happiness is the natural concomitant of Truth, and 
that that is the explanation of the apparent contradiction in the statement of the aims 
of Freemasonry. Truth and Happiness would thus have the same relationship which 
Tennyson points out as existing between duty and glory: 

"He that walks the path of duty only thirsting 
For the right, and leams to deaden 
Love of self, before his journey closes 
He shall find the stubborn thistle bursting 
Into glossy purples, which outredden 
All voluptuous garden roses." 

Thus, the aim of Philosophy and of Freemasonry being the same, you will see my 
justification in dealing with Freemasonry as a philosophy. 

The nature of that philosophy cannot be clearly explained without a short allusion to 
the Allegory of Freemasonry. In that allegory the candidate is made to represent a 
human being in his progress from birth to death, or, as the mental and moral 
development of a man from childhood to old age closely corresponds to the mental 
and moral advancement of the race, he may be said to represent human knowledge as 
it ascends from darkness to light. 

This ascent is made by three steps. And may I be permitted to digress a moment to 
point out that in nature many physical entities or qualities occur in threes or triads. 
Thus we have Space and its three dimensions, Length, Breadth, Thickness; Matter and 
its three states, Solid, Liquid, Gaseous. Physical Magnitudes, Length, Mass, Time. 

Color, Red, Green, Blue or Violet. Sound, Loudness, Pitch, Quality. Electric Current, 
Circuit, Electro-motive Force, Resistance, etc., etc. 

A three-fold division is also manifested in man's nature, which is generally recognized 
as being made up of three distinct parts, namely, Body, Mind, Spirit. Browning puts 
into the mouth of one of the patrons of Freemasonry, St. John, the Divine, the 
following words, which beautifully set forth this distinction: 

This is the doctrine he was wont to teach, 

How divers persons witness in each man, 

Three souls which make up one soul; first, to wit, 

A soul of each and all the bodily parts, 

Seated therein, which works, and is what Does, 

And has the use of earth, and ends the man 
Downward: but, tending upward for advice, 

Grows into, and again is grown into 
By the next soul, which, seated in the brain, 

Useth the first with its collected use, 

And feeleth, thinketh, willeth-is what Knows: 

Which, duly tending upward in its turn, 

Grows into, and again is grown into 
By the last soul, that uses both the first, 

Subsisting whether they assist or no, 

And, constituting man's self, is what Is- 

And leans upon the former, makes it play, 

As that played off the first; and, tending up, 

Holds, is upheld by, God, and ends the man 
Upward in that dread point of intercourse, 

Nor needs a place, for it returns to Him. 

What Does, what Knows, what Is; three souls, one man. 

As may be expected, therefore, these three parts of man's nature are fully recognized 
in Freemasonry, each of the three degrees representing one the First degree, the Body 
(the material world or world of sense); the Second, the Mind; and the Third, the Spirit, 
the Ego, of which the other two are ministers. Abundant proof of this is to be found in 
the symbolism of Freemasonry, and it is supported by the opinion of the ablest 
Masonic writers. This distinction may be alluded to in each of the three divisions of 
my lecture. 

As has been mentioned above, the Pursuit of Happiness is the "chief point" of 
Freemasonry as well as the aim of life as presented by Philosophy, according to the 
ancient Greek moralists. All mankind, in every age, from the darkest period of 
barbarism to the most civilized epoch the world has ever seen, have been striving after 
happiness. They may differ in their definition of the term, as well as the means by 
which they can attain their object; but we may take it for granted that ultimately they 
have happiness in view in all their schemes for the conduct of their lives. 

Among savages, the gratification of their passions and desires, without regard to 
future consequences, seems to them the "highest good." This is also true, to a certain 
extent, in the case of children. Philosophy, generally, and Freemasonry have nothing 
to do with that stage of human existence, except in so far as it might be called a 
preparation period; for the whole life of man may be said to be preparation for 
something higher the period of darkness for the E. A., the E. A. for the F. C. and so 
on. It is, therefore, necessary that, before proceeding further and higher, the human 
being should be "duly and truly prepared." 

It is not to be expected that a child or a savage can be prepared at once to receive all 
the instruction necessary to the complete development of his three-fold nature. He 
must advance by steps, from the simplest to the most complex, from the concrete to 
the abstract. There is no doubt that the idea of Mind, still more of Spirit, comes later 
than the knowledge of the Body and other objects that can be perceived by the Senses. 
Preparation, therefore, for education along the lines of such knowledge as can be 
derived only from natural objects must be incomplete. Hence our candidate's 
preparation is in the First degree confined to the left side. The symbolism of the left 
side is well known. That side has always been regarded as the side of less honour that 
the right, and, consequently, is appropriately used to represent the Sensational part of 
man's nature, while the right side connotes the Rational side. 

Hence it is not difficult to conceive that Freemasonry, if it is concerned at all with 
Philosophy, should make the First degree to exemplify the Sensational, and the 
Second, the Rational School of Philosophy- the two great schools of thought which 
have split thinkers into two opposing camps, from the earliest times to the present day. 
Both systems agree that happiness, in one form or another, is the great aim of man, 
and that the life according to nature is virtue, because it leads us right to the end for 
which we were destined by nature, viz., happiness. But they differ in their doctrines 
respecting happiness and nature and virtue. Both agree that within certain limits the 
appetites, passions and desires may be gratified, but the Sensational school maintained 
that the limit was necessary for prudential reasons only, the Rational that happiness 
springs from the limitation and subjugation of the passions. 

The connection between the First degree and the Sensational School will be apparent 
if we recollect that "refreshment" in the old days was not a mere banquet to be held or 
not held, after the ceremonies of the evening were over, in a different room, but that it 
was an integral part of those ceremonies, solemnized by the placing on the 
refreshment table of the Lights of Masonry, by the prayers of the Master and the other 
ceremonies of "opening," but "mingled with social mirth, and the mutual interchange 
of fraternal feeling." It may be regarded, therefore, as a rite emblematical of the 
liberty of man to gratify his appetites, desires and passions subject to the check of 
Temperance and Prudence, the two Cardinal Virtues of the South and North, which 
we may personify as standing unseen and silent on each side of the table, one behind 
and one facing the Junior Warden. That check is represented also by the Common 

Gavel, the symbol of Temperance, which must be used on the rough ashlar before the 
Square of Morality can be made to fit its angles and faces. 

I will not tax your patience by dwelling on the similarity between the Second degree 
and the Rational School of Philosophy. But I may remind you that happiness 
according to the latter consists in the limitation and subjugation of the passions, while 
the emphasis laid by the former on Morality and Virtue and the subjugation of the 
Passions seems to establish the parallel. The Second degree also lays special stress on 
the study of Geometry representing Mathematics which subject was regarded by the 
old Greek philosophers particularly Pythagoras as the symbol of Pure Reason. In 
Architecture Geometry is the science which determines the form of a structure, and 
which is more concerned about that than about the substance or matter of which it is 
composed. The form symbolizes the limit, and the materials, the appetites and 
passions, the matter, in the Second degree, being completely subordinated to the 
former, as has been shown to be the case in the tenets of the Rational School. 

But Masonry does not, like some of the old Philosophies, maintain the irreconcilable 
opposition of mind or soul and matter. The oblong squares of the Entered Apprentice 
and the Fellow Craft show that each degree taken by itself is incomplete. It is only 
when each is blended with the other that perfection is reached, as is shown in the 
"perfect square" of a Master Mason, which is formed by the union of the other two 
squares. This is one of many proofs in our symbolism that the Third degree is the 
summation of the other two with the addition of further lessons on the Nature of God 
and Immortality. 

The refreshment table of Freemasonry is symbolical not only of our liberty, within the 
bounds of Temperance and Prudences to partake of the material blessings lavished on 
us by God, but it is also an emblem of a figurative table provided with materials for 
the satisfaction of our mental and moral appetites. The viands are the thoughts of great 
and good men either presented to us in books or by word of mouth, and the 
satisfaction we derive from moral and virtuous actions. 

Freemasonry has set limits to prevent our abuse of these blessings; but in placing 
before us material as well as mental and spiritual food, it effectually rebukes those 

who look on physical gratification, even within lawful limits, as sinful, and who seek 
to obtain God's favour by neglect and contempt of His temple, the human body. 

"Let us not always say, 

'Spite of this flesh today 

I strove, made head, gained ground upon the whole!' 

As the bird wings and sings, 

Let us cry, 'All good things 

Are ours, nor soul helps flesh more, now, than flesh helps soul!'" 


Plato states that "the aim of Education is to develop in the body and in the soul all the 
beauty and all the perfection of which they are capable." 

The question before us now is, Does Freemasonry interest itself in the subject of 
Education, and, if so, does the aim of the Education suggested by Freemasonry 
resemble the aim of Education as defined by Plato? I think there can be no doubt that 
the question must be answered in the affirmative. Freemasonry expressly deals with 
the development of Body and Soul and leaves nothing in the matter of the education 
of its votaries that can be improved upon; for it works in conformity to Nature, and in 
the order of Nature in the matter of Education as in all other things in which it 
concerns itself. 

In order to comprehend, then, its system, let me remind you that the First degree is the 
degree of the material universe. The first step, therefore, in Masonic Education is 
education through the senses. In the earlier stages of a man's life, he takes cognizance 
only of such knowledge as can be acquired through the senses. Nothing is real to him 

unless he can touch, taste, smell, hear or see it. The most natural and, therefore, the 
most scientific method of teaching the young is through the senses. The concrete must 
precede the abstract. Such an education would be directed especially to the 
enlargement and refinement of the receptive powers; of those powers, above all which 
are directly relative to fleeting phenomena the powers of sensation and emotion. 

What is called "practical education" the training of the hand and eye to obey the 
directions of the mind; aesthetic education occupied very largely with those aspects of 
things which affect us pleasurably through the senses, including art and the finer sorts 
of literature; education of the heart dealing with the love of Nature, animate and 
inanimate, above all, love and charity towards our fellow men, which latter is the 
special lesson of an E. A., and love to God, from Whom flows every good and perfect 
gift: all these, without stretching the meanings of the symbolism, are inculcated in the 
first degree of Freemasonry. 

The candidate in the Second degree has made a further advance. Abstract studies are 
set before him, having for their object the development of all his intellectual faculties, 
the moral and spiritual elevation of his character, and the further acquisition of truth 
and knowledge. Cut I must remind you, here, that no degree stands by itself. Each 
"grows into and is again grown into" by the other two. you must not understand, 
therefore, that mind and intellect are not trained in the First degree, but that they are 
further greatly developed in the Second. 

The beautiful symbolism of the Winding Stairs represents a synopsis of the Masonic 
system of education. 

The first three steps I take to mean a mere reminder, such as occurs, again and again, 
throughout all the ceremonies of the lodge, that three parts, Body, Soul and Spirit, 
constitute the nature of Man; and they are intended simply as an introduction or key to 
the Educational scale which commences with the flight of five steps. 

The first flight, then, refers to the five senses, and alludes to the Education through the 
Senses, suggested in a former part of this discussion. 

The second flight of seven steps, referring to seven purely abstract studies, is 
symbolical of Pure Reason, and shows an upward advance in the candidate's 
intellectual progress. 

But where is the third member of the triad in this ascent, which the first three steps, 
according to the inteipretation given above, has led us to look for? To answer this we 
must ask another question, "What has been the goal or aim of the candidate during his 
long and arduous pilgrimage?" To which question there is only one answer, "The 
Truth." He does not yet find it; but high up and suspended in the distance he descries 
the letter "G." a mere initial, a glimmering hope that his labour has not been in vain, 
and that he has at last seen, faintly indeed and indistinctly, an indication of the object 
of his search. He has still far to go, he still has a rough and rugged road to travel; but 
his Faith is now buoyed up by Hope, and he knows that he will reach the goal if he 
continues true to his puipose. 

There is another aspect of the Winding Stairs which has struck me as beautiful and 
worthy of your consideration. If we imagine a spiral line drawn round a conical hill, it 
will appear to be like a number of circles narrowing in diameter, or growing closer to 
the centre the higher they rise, till, at the top, the circumference disappears in the 
centre. So man, by labour, virtue, and faith in God, may ascend, step by step, in his 
progress through life, drawing nearer and ever nearer to Him, till finally, his earthly 
pilgrimage over, his liberated spirit comes before His Holy Presence, and is lost in the 
Light and Warmth of His infinite Intelligence and His inexhaustible Love. 


There is probably no society in this world more imbued with the religious sense than 
the Fraternity of Freemasons. Questions of Morality and Religion are freely and 
reverently discussed by them in their lodges, and lectures on subjects bearing on the 

conduct of human life are listened to by them with an interest and patience which 
shows that they are animated not so much by fraternal courtesy as by sincere desire 
for self-improvement. Nor is that to be wondered at when one considers the reverence 
which every member of the Craft pays to the ceremonies of the lodge and to the 
excellent principles which are always inculcated therein. An examination, therefore, 
into the principles of Freemasonry which bring about this religious inclination among 
Masons, which my experience assures me exists, is my purpose at this stage of my 

In the first place, a belief in God and Immortality is required of every applicant for 
admission into a lodge. That is necessary for- two reasons. First, as the name of God 
is so frequently invoked in our assemblies, and as all our ceremonies and lectures tend 
to impress on our mind His wonderful government of the world and our dependence 
on Him, the presence in our midst of an atheist who would certainly not sympathize 
with, if he did not actually scoff at our proceedings, would prove a source of discord 
in a society so dependent on harmony as its "strength and support." 

Another reason for requiring of an applicant a belief in God, is that without such 
belief he would lack the very foundation on which the lessons of Freemasonry are 
based, and would, consequently, finding himself out of sympathy with our beliefs, 
either cease to associate himself with the Fraternity, or, keeping up a nominal 
connection with it, lose no opportunity of belittling the importance of our work, and of 
designating our symbolical teaching as puerile and unworthy of the serious attention 
of any thoughtful man. Thus he would not only derive no benefit himself, but would 
be likely to create prejudice against us in the eyes of the profane. This he might be 
able to do without violating the letter of his obligation. 

The preparation for and symbolism of each of the three degrees has, of course, the 
same significance when Freemasonry is discussed from the point of view of its being 
ancillary to Religion, as it had when we were dealing with its Philosophical and 
Educational sides. You will, therefore, not require further explanation if, as I proceed, 
I refer to the Degree of Nature, the Degree of Mind and the degree in which both the 
former are united into one Degree of Perfection. 

But, before proceeding to discuss this part of my subject I propose to deal briefly with 
symbolisms which might be classified under each of those three heads, but which it is 
more convenient to take by themselves, as they throw light on what is to follow. And 
the first of these that I shall speak about is the three knocks of the candidate seeking 
admission to a lodge open on any degree. The first knock refers to the fundamental 
necessity of prayer. The subject of prayer is the first lesson given the E. A. on his 
entrance into the lodge; prayer is taught by example, in each of the Degrees; and 
prayer was the last act of H. A. B. before his tragic death. "Ask and ye shall receive" 
is the interpretation of the first knock, and that command, with its gracious promise, 
is, further, beautifully symbolized on the Tracing Board of the E. A. The story of 
Jacob's dream is familiar to you all and need not be told here. But 1 shall give you 
what seems to be the Masonic significance of it. The ascending angels bear to heaven 
the prayers and petitions of men, and the descending angels bring back the answers 
from God in the form of bounties and blessings. 

The second knock, we are told, means "Seek, and ye shall find." Here is a direct 
injunction to search for Truth. That search is the paramount duty of every Freemason; 
in fact it is the sole object of all the teachings of Freemasonry. 

"Knock and it shall be opened to you." 

If with all your hearts you prayerfully and truly seek Him, your admittance into the 
Grand Lodge Above will not be denied. Your search will then be rewarded; you will 
find the Lost Word; in God's holy presence you will discover the Truth. 

Sacrifice, of which the altar is a symbol, is also one of the requisites of Freemasonry. 
All that a Mason has property, even life— must be given up for the "protection of 
innocence and virtue, and for the defense of Truth." 

The symbolism of the Sun is perhaps the most important vehicle for the conveyance to 
our minds of Divine Truth. The Sun is the pattern for the imitation of the Worshipful 
Master, because it is symbolical of certain attributes of the Deity Love and 

Intelligence, Order and Harmony. The warmth of the Sun is emblematical of Love, 
and his light of Intelligence or Mind. The three Lesser Lights are said to represent the 
Sun, Moon and Worshipful Master. The Sun symbolizes the attributes of God, Love 
and Intelligence. The Moon, which reflects the light, but not the warmth, of the Sun 
Intelligence. The Worshipful Master, Man, the most perfect of His works. 

The Sun also represents the Immanence of God. Its warmth pervades the Earth and is 
necessary not only for the comfort, but also for the life, of all organic creatures. In like 
manner God is everywhere. In the beautiful words of Mrs. Browning: 

"Earth is crammed with Heaven 
And every bush and tree 
Afire with God. But only he 
Who sees takes off his shoes." 

His love is unfailing even to the lowest organism He has made; and His intelligence is 
manifested in all the works of His hands, and acts in the formation of a frost crystal as 
certainly and as beautifully as in the growth of a blade of grass. "This deity," quotes 
Tagore from the Upanishad, "who is manifesting himself in the activities of the 
universe, always dwells in the heart of man as the supreme soul. Those who realize 
Him through the immediate perception of the heart attain immortality." 

One word more about Sun symbolism. The point within the circle is the astronomical 
symbol of the Sun. The Sun is represented by the central point, the circumference 
represents his rays. The compasses is the instrument used for describing circles, the 
pivotal point representing the central Sun, and the other point Light. Thus, in the 
Fellow Craft degree, when one point has been elevated above the square, the meaning 
seems to be that a certain measure of intellectual and moral light has been vouchsafed 
to the candidate. But when the pivotal point is also placed above the square, he has 
received the pure light and warmth of Masonry all the knowledge of the Truth that "it 
is possible for him to obtain in a lodge of Master Masons." 

But the most important assistance which Freemasonry lends to Religion is when it 
teaches the Craftsman that the existence of God can be deduced from His works. 

And, first, Freemasonry shows that God is manifested in Nature, which is His 
creation. "The Heavens declare the Glory of God and the Earth showeth forth His 
handiwork." The works of our greatest poets are full of this theme. Nay, even savages, 
in their own rude way, see a god in every manifestation of nature. It is not wonderful, 
therefore, that Freemasonry should say that "contemplating these objects" (of nature) 
"we are led to view with reverence and admiration the wonderful works of Creation, 
and adore their Divine Creator." All religions and most philosophies agree in the 
necessity of a First Cause, or God. Freemasonry teaches us to study Nature, to admire 
its beauties, to comprehend its wonderful harmony, to appreciate the marvellous 
adaptation of every created thing to its environment and the purpose for which it was 
created, and reverently to worship the Maker and Creator of all things. 

Thus, and far too briefly, I have laid before you the argument which deduces the 
Cause from the Effect in the material world. By our objective consciousness we try to 
trace the Divine in Nature. But there is a higher consciousness-the subjective -which 
deals with the Mind, and which traces the Divine in Man. This part of my subject 
might also be presented to you under the heading: "God as comprehended by the 
individual mind." 

"Are the intelligence of God and the intelligence of man of the same character ? 
Intelligence itself seems to constrain us to answer this question in the affirmative. To 
suppose that the supreme intelligence has nothing whatever in common with the 
human intelligence, is to suppose that one of them is an intelligence, and that the other 
is no intelligence at all. It is to dissolve the very ground on which we conceive both of 
them as intelligences. This truth, then, in regard to the constitution of the human mind, 
and of all minds, seems to be a necessary axiom of reason. In all intelligence there is 
an essential unity of kind, however small the point of unity may be. . . . This unity 
constitutes the very bond, and the only bond, between the Creator and the creature. 
Deny this connection between the divine and human reason, and you destroy the very 
possibility of religion." The preceding sentences, taken from the philosophical works 
of Professor Ferrier, are, in short, the summary of his argument for the connection 

between all finite minds and the infinite mind of the Creator. The mind of Man, who, 
compared with the rest of Creation, is physically insignificant, is the most wonderful 
phenomenon that exists in the Universe. It traces the paths of comets and planets, and 
predicts their appearance at any position in the sky to a fraction of a second; it 
calculates the distances from the Earth and from each other of the most remote fixed 
stars; it even can tell their weights, specific gravity, and the constitution of the solid 
and gaseous matters of which they are composed. It harnesses the lightning and the 
cataract and forces them into the peaceful service of humanity. No object is too 
minute or too immense for its comprehension. And its steady and daring progress in 
the past from one pinnacle of knowledge to another makes the forecast of its further 
and greater triumphs logical and certain. 

The achievements of the human mind are not confined, however, to the discoveries of 
scientific truth. Too great homage cannot be paid to the mighty minds of the men to 
whom such triumphs are due. But the unveiling of the workings of the soul by poets, 
philosophers and other men of letters is further and even greater testimony to the 
majesty of the human intellect. Well might the great world-poet exclaim: 

"What a piece of work is a man! How noble in reason, how infinite in faculty! in form 
and moving how express and admirable! in action how like an angel! in apprehension 
how like a god!" 

Man, endowed with mental faculties which enable him to comprehend the laws by 
which the Universe is governed and the harmony of Creation, cannot fail, by 
comparison with the processes of his mind, to believe that the natural objects whose 
secrets it has been able to discover, are governed and regulated by a mind similar in 
nature to his own, and only differing in degree. He perceives that other human minds 
are like his own, and that mind is an indissoluble bond of union between man and 
God. Wordsworth, in "Tintem Abbey," not only brings out the thought of union 
between God and Man, but also emphasizes the bond of union between Nature and 
God, which I have already discussed. Man, he says, has: 

"A sense sublime 

Of something far more deeply interfused 
Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns, 
And the round ocean, and the living air, 

And the blue sky, and the mind of man,- 
A motion and a spirit that impels 
All thinking things, all objects of all thought, 
And rolls through all things." 

God is thus revealed in Nature, and God is thus revealed in Man. But there is another 
revelation recognized by Freemasonry in every degree namely, the V. O. T. S. L. "the 
inestimable gift of God to Man as a guide to his daily faith and practice." The religion 
of a Freemason is left to his own conscience, but the sacred writings are always open 
in his lodge, a silent, but eloquent, witness that Freemasonry is not only not 
indifferent to religion, but that she expects every craftsman to be a religious man. In 
fact, she mentions the "irreligious libertine" as a man who has no right to the 
privileges of the Craft. 

These are some, only, of the many arguments which prove Freemasonry to be the 
Handmaid of Religion. Could any mistress be better served? 


We have given much time to the contemplation of the lessons of the South and West. 
Have we no message from the North? Yes, indeed! The place of darkness is a region 
not to be afraid of, but rather to be regarded with affection and gratitude. For it is the 
place of "sleep and his brother, death." 

"Now blessings light on him who first invented sleep!" says Sancho Panza in Don 
Quixote, "It covers a man all over, thoughts and all, like a cloak; it is meat for the 
hungry, heat for the cold, and cold for the hot. It is the current coin that purchases all 
the pleasures of the world cheap, and the balance that sets the king and the shepherd, 
the fool and the wise man, even." 

What better eulogy could be written on Sleep than that? It is rightly associated with 
refreshment in the first division of the twenty-four-inch Gauge. 

But, some one may say, "Sleep is a blessing, I grant you, but how about Death? After 
sleep comes waking; but Death means the leaving all that is near and dear to men, and 
the severing of every tie which binds them to earth. Death is the end." Is it? If it is, 
then is the teaching of Freemasonry vain; vain is the teaching of Religion. But we 
Freemasons are taught that Death is not the end. Though all things are dark, and the 
knell of low-twelve is sounding in our ears, though our brother's mangled body is 
lying covered only by the rubbish of the temple; though our loving hands remove him 
from the grave where he was "indecently interred," and the evidence of our nostrils 
gives unmistakable evidence of physical dissolution, we know that all is well with 
him, for the G.A.O.T.U. has taken him by the hand, and raised him to take his place in 
another lodge a real lodge of Perfection where he is surrounded by the dear ones who 
have preceded him there, and where he awaits the arrival of those whom he dearly 
loved and by whom he was dearly loved, with perfect confidence, for he knows the 
Truth. He has found the Master Mason's Word 



CURIOUSLY enough, the first sovereign to join and protect Freemasonry was the 
Catholic German Emperor Frances I, the founder of the actually reigning line of 
Austria, while the first measures against Freemasonry were taken by Protestant 
Governments: Holland, 1735; Sweden and Geneva, 1738; Zurich, 1740; Beme, 1745. 
In Spain, Portugal and Italy, measures against Masonry were taken after 1738. In 
Bavaria Freemasonry was prohibited 1784 and 1785; in Austria, 1795; in Baden, 

1813; in Russia, 1822. Since 1847 it has been tolerated in Baden, since 1850 in 
Bavaria, since 1868 in Hungary and Spain. In Austria Freemasonry is still prohibited 
because as the Superior Court of Administration 23 January, 1905, rightly declared, a 
Masonic association, even though established in accordance with law, "would be a 
member of a large (international) organization (in reality ruled by the 'Old Charges,' 
etc., according to general Masonic principles and aims), the true regulations of which 
would be kept secret from the civil authorities, so that the activity of the members 
could not be controlled" (Bauhutte, 1905, 60). It is indeed to be presumed that Austro- 
Hungarian Masons, whatever statutes they might present to the Austrian Government 
in order to secure their authorization, would in fact continue to regard the French 
Grand Orient as their true pattern, and the Brothers Kossuth, Garibaldi, and Mazzini 
as the heroes, whom they would strive to imitate. The Prussian edict of 1798 
interdicted Freemasonry in general, excepting the three old Prussian Grand Lodges 
which the protectorate subjected to severe control by the Government, this edict, 
though juridically abrogated by the edict of 6 April, 1848, practically, according to a 
decision of the Supreme Court of Administration of 22 April, 1893, by an erroneous 
interpretation of the organs of adminstration, remained in force till 1893. Similarly, in 
Gngland an Act of Parliament was passed on 12 July, 798, for the "more effectual 
suppression of societies stablished for seditions and treasonable purposes and or 
preventing treasonable and seditious practices." By this Act Masonic associations and 
meetings in general were interdicted, and only the lodges existing on 2 July, 1798, and 
ruled according to the old regulations of the Masonry of the kingdom were tolerated, 
on condition that two representatives of the lodge should make oath before the 
magistrates, that the lodge existed and was ruled as the Act enjoined (Preston, 
"Illustrations of Masonry," 251 sqq.). During the period 1827-34, measures were 
taken against Freemasonry in some of the United States of America. As to European 
countries it may be stated, that all those Governments, which had not originated in the 
revolutionary movement, strove to protect themselves against Masonic secret 

The action of the Church is summed up in the papal pronouncements against 
Freemasonry since 1738, the most important of which are: 

Clement XII, Const. "In Eminenti," 28 April, 1738; Benedict XIV, "Providas," 18 
May, 1751; Pius VII, "Ecclesiam," 13 September, 1821; Leo XII, "Quo graviora," 13 
March, 1825; Pius VIII, Encycl. "Traditi," 21 May, 1829; Gregory XVI, "Mirari," 15 
August, 1832; Pius IX, Encycl. "Qui pluribus," 9 November, 1846; Alloc. "Quibus 
quantisque malis," 20 April, 1849; Encycl. "Quanta cura," 8 December, 1864; Alloc. 
"Multiplices inter," 25 September, 1865; Const. "Apostolicae Sedis," 12 October, 
1869; Encycl. "Etsi multa," 21 November, 1873; Leo XIII, Encycl. "Humanum 
genus," 20 April, 1884; "Praeclara," 20 June, 1894; "Annum ingressi," 18 March, 
1902 (against Italian Freemasonry); Encycl. "Etsi nos." 15 February, 1882; "Ab 
Apostolici," 15 October, 1890. These pontifical utterances from first to last are in 
complete accord, the latter reiterating the earlier with such developments as were 
called for by the growth of Freemasonry and other secret societies. 

Clement XII accurately indicates the principal reasons why Masonic associations from 
the Catholic, Christian, moral, political, and social points of view, should be 
condemned. These reasons are: (1) The peculiar, "unsectarian" (in truth, anti-Catholic 
and anti- Christian) naturalistic character of Freemasonry, by which theoretically and 
practically it undermines the Catholic and Christian faith, first in its members and 
through them in the rest of society, creating religious indifferentism and contempt for 
orthodoxy and ecclesiastical authority. (2) The inscrutable secrecy and fallacious 
ever-changing disguise of the Masonic association and of its "work," by which "men 
of this sort break as thieves into the house and like foxes endeavour to root up the 
vineyard," "perverting the hearts of the simple," mining their spiritual and temporal 
welfare. (3) The oaths of secrecy and of fidelity to Masonry and Masonic work, which 
cannot be justified in their scope, their object, or their form, and cannot, therefore, 
induce any obligation. The oaths are condemnable, because the scope and object of 
Masonrv are "wicked" and condemnable, and the candidate in most cases is ignorant 
of the import or extent of the obligation which he takes upon himself. Moreover the 
ritualistic and doctrinal "secrets" which are the principal object of the obligation, 
according to the highest Masonic authorities, are either trifles or no longer exist 
(Handbuch, 3rd ed., I, 219). In either case the oath is a condemnable abuse. Even the 
Masonic modes of recognition, which are represented as the principal and only 
essential "secret" of Masonry, are published in many printed books. Hence the real 
"secrets" of Masonry, if such there be, could only be political or antireligious 
conspiracies like the plots of the Grand Lodges in Latin countries. But such secrets, 
condemned, at least theoretically, by Anglo-American Masons themselves, would 
render the oath or obligation only the more immoral and therefore null and void. Thus 

in every respect the Masonic oaths are not only sacrilegious but also an abuse contrary 
to public order which requires that solemn oaths and obligations as the principal 
means to maintain veracity and faithfulness in the State and in human society, should 
not be vilified or caricatured. In Masonry the oath is further degraded by its form 
which includes the most atrocious penalties, for the "violation of obligations" which 
do not even exist; a "violation" which, in truth may be and in many cases is an 
imperative duty. (4) The danger which such societies involve for the security and 
"tranquility of the State" and for "the spiritual health of souls," and consequently their 
incompatibility with civil and canonical law. For even admitting that some Masonic 
associations pursued for themselves no puiposes contrary to religion and to public 
order, they would be nevertheless contrary to public order, because by their very 
existence as secret societies based on the Masonic principles, they encourage and 
promote the foundation- of other really dangerous secret societies and render difficult, 
if not impossible, efficacious action of the civil and ecclesiastical authorities against 

Of the other papal edicts only some characteristic utterances need be mentioned. 
Benedict XIV appeals more urgently to Catholic princes and civil powers to obtain 
their assistance in the struggle against Freemasonry. Pius VII condemns the secret 
society of the Carbonari which, if not an off-shoot, is "certainly an imitation of the 
Masonic society" and, as such, already comprised in the condemnation issued against 
it. Leo XII deplores the fact, that the civil powers had not heeded the earlier papal 
decrees, and in consequence out of the old Masonic societies even more dangerous 
sects had sprung. Among them the "Universitarian" is mentioned as most pernicious. 
"It is to be deemed certain," says the pope, "that these secret societies are linked 
together by the bond of the same criminal puiposes." Gregory XVI similarly declares 
that the calamities of the age were due principally to the conspiracy of secret societies, 
and like Leo XII, deplores the religious indifferentism and the false ideas of tolerance 
propagated by secret societies. Pius IX (Allocution, 1865) characterizes Freemasonry 
as an insidious, fraudulent and perverse organization injurious both to religion and to 
society; and condemns anew "this Masonic and other similar societies, which 
differing only in appearance coalesce constantly and openly or secretly plot against 
the Church or lawful authority." Leo XIII (1884) says: "There are various sects, which 
although differing in name, rite, form, and origin, are nevertheless so united by 
community of puiposes and by similarity of their main principles as to be really one 
with the Masonic sect, which is a kind of centre, whence they all proceed and whither 
they all return." The ultimate puipose of Freemasonry is "the overthrow of the whole 
religious, political, and social order based on Christian institutions and the 

establishment of a new state of things according to their own ideas and based in its 
principles and laws on pure Naturalism." 

In view of these several reasons Catholics since 1738 are, under penalty of 
excommunication, incurred ipso facto, and reserved to the pope, strictly forbidden to 
enter or promote in any way Masonic societies. The law now in force (Const. 
"Apostolicae Sedis," 1869 Cap. ii, n.24) pronounces excommunication upon "those 
who enter Masonic or Carbonarian or other sects of the same kind, which, openly or 
secretly, plot against the Church or lawful authority and those who in any wny favour 
these sects or do not denounce their leaders and principal members." Under this head 
mention must also be made of the "Practical Instruction of the Congreg. of the 
Inquisition, 7 May, 1884, 'de Secta Massonum' " (Acta Sanctae Sedis, XVIII, 43-47) 
and of the decrees of the Provincial Councils of Baltimore, 1840: New Orleans, 1856; 
Quebec, 1851, 1868; of the first Councils of the English Colonies, 1854; and 
particularly of the Plenary Councils of Baltimore, 1866 and 1884 (see "Collect. 
Lacensis," III, 1875 and "Acta et deer. Concil. plen. Balt. Ill," 1884). These 
documents refer mainly to the application of the papal decrees according to the 
peculiar conditions of the respective ecclesiastical provinces. The Third Council of 
Baltimore, n. 254 sq., states the method of ascertaining whether or not a society is to 
be regarded as comprised in the papal condemnation of Freemasonry. It reserves the 
final decision thereon to a commission consisting of all the archbishops of the 
ecclesiastical provinces represented in the council, and if they cannot reach a 
unanimous conclusion, refers to the Holy See. 

These papal edicts and censures against Freemasonry have often been the occasion of 
erroneous and unjust charges. The excommunication was inteipreted as an 
"imprecation" that cursed all Freemasons and doomed them to perdition. In truth an 
excommunication is simply an ecclesiastical penalty, by which members of the 
Church should be deterred from acts fhst are criminal according to ecclesiastical law. 
The pope and the bishops, therefore, as faithful pastors of Christ's flock, cannot but 
condemn Freemasonry. They would betray, as Clement XII stated, their most sacred 
duties, if they did not oppose with all their power the insidious propagation and 
activity of such societies in Catholic countries or with respect to Catholics in mixed 
and Protestant countries. Freemasonry systematically promotes religious 
indifFerentism and undermines true, i.e., orthodox Christian and Catholic Faith and 
life. Freemasonry is essentially Naturalism and hence opposed to all supematuralism. 
As to some particular charges of Feo XIII (1884) challenged by Freemasons, e.g., the 
atheistical character of Freemasonry, it must be remarked, that the pope considers the 

activity of Masonic and similar societies as a whole, applying to it the term which 
designates the most of these societies and among the Masonic groups those, which 
push the so-called "anti-clerical," in reality irreligious and revolutionary, principles of 
Freemasonry logically to their ultimate consequences and thus, in truth, are, as it 
were, the advanced outposts and standard-bearers of the whole immense anti-Catholic 
and anti-papal army in the world-wide spiritual warfare of our age. In this sense also 
the pope, in accordance with a fundamental biblical and evangelical view developed 
by St. Augustine in his "De civitate Dei," like the Masonic poet Carducci in his 
"Hymn to Satan," considers Satan as the supreme spiritual chief of this hostile army. 
Thus Leo XIII (1884) expressly states: "What we say, must be understood of the 
Masonic sect in the universal acceptation of the term, as it comprises all kindred and 
associated societies, but not of their single members. There may be persons amongst 
these, and not a few, who, although not free from the guilt of having entangled 
themselves in such associations, yet are neither themselves partners in their criminal 
acts nor aware of the ultimate object which these associations are endeavouring to 
attain. Similarly some of the several bodies of the association may perhaps by no 
means approve of certain extreme conclusions, which they would consistently accept 
as necessarily following from the general principles common to all, were they not 
deterred by the vicious character of the conclusions." "The Masonic federation is to be 
judged not so much by the acts and things it has accomplished, as by the whole of its 
principles and purposes." 

— o — 


Masonry is a means, not an end; and the reception of a degree, whether it be the first 
or last of a Rite, does not in itself make the recipient any better than he was before. It 
simply is the medium for broadening his knowledge of his duties, and the application 
of those duties in his daily walk and conduct. 

To put it in another way, the degrees in Masonry are but working tools whereby the 
man who receives them may shape his course in life, and he is to be judged by the 
manner in which he has made those tools Serviceable and profitable in his own 

betterment and in assisting those around him to he better and more useful. -The Junior 

Example is the School of mankind, and they will leam at no other. -Burke. 



There ne'er was truer Mason than Jerry Jackson Jason 
He delighted in its mystery, antiquity, and history; 

But he ne'er could be persuaded that he should be higher graded 
And of more degrees possessor than the fundamental three. 

It was argued he'd be apter with the knowledge of the Chapter 
That he'd prove a bright exemplar in the character of Templar, 
While the Thirty- Second brothers told of roadway 'round the others. 
But he left no doubt or question as to higher grade suggestion, 

Or, to being "arched" or "knighted," or to any others plighted, 

For a Master Mason simply he was satisfied to be. 

They declared that he was foolish, even obstinate and mulish 
To thus decline advancement which for them had such entrancement 
But to him the title "brother" was the acme of all other, 

And the Lodge supremest honor as he understood its plan. 

Its symbols with their teaching they were to him far-reaching, 

Beyond their surface seeming what hidden tmths were gleaming 
The wisdom-store of sages transmitted through the ages, 

Every angle with its story, every line a ray of glory 
In the marvelous design linking human to divine, 

And man to man in brotherhood whate'er his race or clan. 

The mystery of the scroll was the temple of the soul; 

Integrity must build it, virtue ornament and gild it; 

Tmth's shining presence light its hope sustain and love unite it, 
Wisdom raise the dome above it faith uplift the turret tall. 

Such was Masonry's ideal, and he strove to make it real- 
Sanctified by loving deeds prompted by a brother's needs. 

To his course the plumb applying, by the square his actions trying, 

As the master hand of duty shaped his ashlar into beauty, 

More and more its surface glowed through the good which he bestowed, 

Freer grew from earthly blemish, fitter for the Living Wall. 

Was there sick or suffering Mason thither sped good Brother Jason, 

And the sunshine of his face brightened many a cheerless place, 

While his words were so assuring, they did more than drugs toward curing, 
And disease full oft was baffled and the threatening crisis passed. 

But if all was unavailing and the stricken one fast failing, 

Then he took the wasted hand, voiced the thought of better land, 

Which the worthy would set eye on through the strength of Judah's Lion, 

In the Father's house on high when life's burden was laid by - 
On the listener's fading sight there had dawned celestial light, 

And on face with rapture beaming death had set his seal at last. 

To the dead as to the living willing service ever giving 
Ever 'mong the faithful found who a brother’s grave surround, 

And the last sad tribute pay to the lifeless form of clay 
With acacia-sprigs proclaiming that his spirit liveth still. 

To the widow, orphan, friendless, his good deeds 'twould seem were endless, 
And affairs of self as naught when their wants vrere in his thought. 

His, the words fresh courage woke when there fell misfortune's stroke 
His, the hand that help extended and despairing ones befriended: 

His, the work beyond compare, tested by the plumb and square 

His, the wage of fadeless glory over which the angels thriil. 

Yet they'd say of Brother Jason, "He is only Master Mason!" 

And implying, by the stress, that his rank was thereby less! 

Less than theirs, degree-entangled and befeathered and bespangled, 

And befogged beyond perception of the true Masonic light. 

Vain and thoughtless brethren these, valueless are mere degrees; 

'Tis the lessons they impart and their lodgment in the heart, 

Which, if rightly understood, prove the measure of their good. 

Though a thousand such there be, they can ne'er eclipse the three; 

And the faithful, zealous Mason, such as Jerry Jackson Jason, 

Stands supreme 'mid glare and glitter, peerless in his apron white. 

- Lawrence N. Greenleaf, P.G.M., Colorado. 

Be cheerful always. There is no path but will be easier traveled, no load but will be 
lighter, no shadow on heart and brain but will lift sooner for a person of determined 
cheerfulness. - Willitts. 



Edited by Bro. H. L. Haywood 



THE Course of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: 

THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how 
the references to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may 
be worked up as supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course 
with the papers by Brother Haywood. 


The Course is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided, as is 
shown below: 

Division I. Ceremonial Masonry. 

A. The Work of the Lodge. 

B. The Lodge and the Candidate. 

C. First Steps. 

D. Second Steps. 

E. Third Steps. 

Division II. Symbolical Masonry. 

A. Clothing. 

B. Working Tools. 

C. Furniture. 

D. Architecture. 

E. Geometry. 

F. Signs. 

G. Words. 

H. Grips. 

Division III. Philosophical Masonry. 

A. Foundations. 

B. Virtues. 

C. Ethics. 

D. Religious Aspect. 

E. The Quest. 

F. Mysticism. 

G. The Secret Doctrine. 

Division IV. Legislative Masonry. 

A. The Grand Lodge. 

1. Ancient Constitutions. 

2. Codes of Law. 

3. Grand Lodge Practices. 

4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges. 

5. Official Duties and Prerogatives. 

B. The Constituent Lodge. 

1. Organization. 

2. Qualifications of Candidates. 

3. Initiation, Passing and Raising. 

4. Visitation. 

5. Change of Membership. 

Division V. Historical Masonry. 

A. The Mysteries— Earliest Masonic Light. 

B. Studies of Rites— Masonry in the Making. 

C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics. 

D. National Masonry. 

E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study. 

F. Feminine Masonry. 

G. Masonic Alphabets. 

H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft. 

I. Biographical Masonry. 

J. Philological Masonry— Study of Significant Words. 


Each month we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following 
the foregoing outline. We are now in "First Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will 
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page two, preceding 
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the chairman of the 
Committee during the study period which will bring out every point touched upon in 
the paper. 

Whenever possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin articles 
from other sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered by 
Brother Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as supplemental 
papers in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of 
references. Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the 
attention of many of our members will thus be presented. 

The monthly installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle 
Bulletin should be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the 
Committee will have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance 

of the meetings and the brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research 
Society will be better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over 
and studied the installment in THE BUILDER. 


Immediately preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the 
Correspondence Circle Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER 
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. These references are pertinent to the paper and will 
either enlarge upon many of the points touched upon or bring out new points for 
reading and discussion. They should be assigned by the Committee to different 
brethren who may compile papers of their own from the material thus to be found, or 
in many instances the articles themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly 
from the originals. The latter method may be followed when the members may not 
feel able to compile original papers, or when the original may be deemed appropriate 
without any alterations or additions. 


The lodge should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live" members. 
The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a special meeting of the 
lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which no business (except the 
lodge routine) should be transacted— all possible time to be given to the study period. 

After the lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master 
should turn the lodge over to the Chairman of the Research Committee. This 
Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for the evening. All 
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned should be 
prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive grasp of Brother 
Haywood's paper. 


1 . Reading of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental 
papers thereto. 

(Suggestion: While these papers are being read the members of the lodge should make 
notes of any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion is 
opened. Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be distributed 
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.) 

2. Discussion of the above. 

3. The subsequent sections of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers 
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same manner. 4. 
Question Box. 


Invite questions from any and all brethren present. Let them understand that these 
meetings are for their particular benefit and get them into the habit of asking all the 
questions they may think of. Every one of the papers read will suggest questions as to 
facts and meanings which may not perhaps be actually covered at all in the paper. If at 
the time these questions are propounded no one can answer them, SEND THEM IN 
TO US. All the reference material we have will be gone through in an endeavor to 
supply a satisfactory answer. In fact we are prepared to make special research when 
called upon, and will usually be able to give answers within a day or two. Please 
remember, too, that the great Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa is only a few miles 
away, and, by order of the Trustees of the Grand Lodge, the Grand Secretary places it 
at our disposal on any query raised by any member of the Society. 


The foregoing information should enable local Committees to conduct their lodge 
study meetings with success. However, we shall welcome all inquiries and 
communications from interested brethren concerning any phase of the plan that is not 
entirely clear to them, and the Services of our Study Club Department are at the 
command of our members, lodge and study club committees at all times. 


I Where do you keep the pillars in your lodge room during the time they are not in 
actual use? Has such position any particular significance? In some jurisdictions we 
find them at either side of the entrance from the preparation room; in others they stand 
in front of the Senior Warden's station. Can you give a reason for either or both of 
these locations other than "for convenienced? How did the pillars impress you when 
you first saw them ? What do they mean to you now? 

II Why did early peoples set up pillars before their places of abode, about their 
villages and over the graves of their dead? What did they believe such pillars to 

What did pillars portray to the Mayas and Incas? How were they looked upon in bible 
times? By whom were monoliths most widely used? In what manner, and for what 
purposes? In the course of religious development what did they come to symbolize? 
What did the obelisk symbolize? 

ITT Whence did the custom of placing pillars before temple entrances proceed from 
Egypt? What did Hiram probably use as his models for the pillars placed before 
Solomon's Temple? 

What do the pillars used in the lodge room represent ? What is the height of the pillars 
as given in the Book of Kings ? In the Book of Chronicles? What is Brother 
Haywood's theory concerning these variations ? How does Mackey describe the 
original pillars? 

What was the shape and composition of the pillars ? What was their combined 
weight? What were they respectively called and what were their positions? How are 
these names interpreted Masonically ? What part did they occupy during celebrations? 
Where were the pillars supposedly cast? 

What should be the height of the pillars used in our lodge rooms? What are the heights 
as adopted by American Grand Lodges? What was the height of the pillars as now 
accepted by present-day authorities ? Is it imperative that we know the actual height 
of the pillars to pursue our Masonic studies? In what light should we consider them ? 

What did the pillars symbolize to Preston ? To Caldecott? To Covey- Crump ? To 
Mackey ? To the old Jewish Rabbis ? What is brother Haywood's interpretation? 

IV What two theories have been offered by Masonic Scholars concerning the origin of 
the globes? How was the first theory suggested? What is the symbol of the winged 
globe? What did its oval shape suggest or symbolize? Do you accept this Egyptian 
theory? If so. why? If not, why not? 

V Why does it appear that Preston modified the chapiters of the pillars into globes? 
How is Preston's theory verified? Do you agree with Brother Haywood that we of 

today have the same right to interpret the symbols in our own way as did the ancients? 
If not, why not? 


Mackey's Encyclopedia: 

Globe, p. 298; Pillar, p. 565; Pillars of Cloud and Fire, p. 566; Pillars of the Porch, p. 


Vol. I. Globes on the Pillars, p. 10; Pillars, Height of, pp. 192, 310. 

Vol. II. Pillars, The Two, pp. 176, 222. 

Vol. III. Pillars of the Porch, pp. 177, 200, 236. 

Vol. IV.-Jachin and Boaz, pp. 21, 264; The Globes, p. 265; The Lily-Work, p. 265; 
The Net-Work, p. 265; The Pomegranate, p. 266. 

Vol. V. The Origin of the Pillars to King Solomon's Temple, (this issue) C. C. B. p. 8; 
The Position of the Pillars, (this issue) C. C. B. p. 6; The Two Pillars Standing in the 
Porch of the Temple, (this issue) C. C. B. p. 5. 



OF ALL objects which greet the eyes of the candidate as he stands before the stairs 
leading to the Middle Chamber none are so conspicuous as the two great pillars nor 
are any more deserving of careful study. They stand there before him as if to guard the 
sanctum from the profane world while they invite him into newer mysteries; so noble 
in proportion are they, so intricate in design, so beautiful to see, they keep solemn 
watch above the scene and throw a hush of awe about the soul that would mount to 
the Upper Room of the spirit. What they mean, it is difficult, although not entirely 
impossible, to say. If our Masonic students and savants have surrounded them with a 
host of theories more intricate than the network and more multitudinous than the 
pomegranates it is because so many hints of ancient wisdom and symbolism have 
been carved into their capitals, their chapiters, and their bases. Our own study may 
lead to apparently contradictory results; this need not disturb us; no symbol can walk 
on all fours; a symbol which says hut one thing is hardly a symbol at all. 

II It was the custom of many of the early peoples, as Frazer describes so abundantly in 
his "Golden Bough," (six volumes on primitive religion, etc.) to set up stone pillars 
before their huts, about their villages, and over the graves of their dead. In some cases 
these stones were believed to be gods or demons, or the abodes of gods or demons; in 
others they were believed to be the homes of the ghosts of departed human beings; in 
many cases they were looked upon as symbols of sex. Of the last named usage one 
competent historian speaks as follows: "Pillars of stone, when associated with 
worship, have been from time immemorial regarded as the symbols of the active and 
passive, the generating and fecundating principles." In India at the present time one 
may see almost anywhere the sacred "lingam," a stone pillar, emblem of the organs of 
sex, and consequently the symbol of life forever renewing itself. Also, pillars have 
often been used as emblems of stability; Dr. Newton, in his "The Builders," speaks as 

"In India, and among the Mayas and Incas there were three great pillars at the portals 
of the earthey and skyey temple, Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty. When man set up a 
pillar, he became a fellow worker with Him whom the old sages of China used to call 
'the first Builder.' Also, pillars were set up to mark the holy places of vision and 
divine deliverance, as when Jacob erected a pillar at Bethel, Joshua at Gilgal, and 
Samuel at Mizpeh and Shen. Always they were symbols of stability, of what the 
Egyptians described as 'the place of establishing forever' emblem of the faith 'that the 
pillars of the earth are the lord's and He hath set the world upon them."' 

"In all countries," remarks another writer, "as the earliest of man's works we 
recognize the sublime, mysteriously-speaking, ever- recurring monolith." By no 
peoples were these monoliths (the word literally means "one stone") so venerated, or 
so widely used, as among the Egyptians: originally, it is thought, they were used as 
astronomical instruments to mark the time and to denote the stages of the movements 
of the heavenly bodies; also they were employed to orient temples, that is, as markers 
through which the ray of a star might pass at a given time. Connected with places of 
worship they were at last connected with the gods and became in after time symbols 
of deity, as we may leam from Professor Breasted's "History of the Development of 
Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt," in which interesting and helpful book he 
tells us that the obelisk, as the solitary pillar came to be called, stood pre- eminently 
for the great Sun God. 

TIT From Egypt, scholars believe, the custom of placing pillars at the entrance to a 
temple passed to Phoenicia: be that as it may we know that a king of Tyre erected two 
great columns before his magnificent temple at Melkarth, where Herodotus saw them 
five centuries afterwards. It was these, perhaps, which served Hiram as models for the 
more famous pillars which he erected before the Temple of Solomon. 

It is these last named pillars, of course, of which copies stand in our Masonic lodge 
room. Two descriptions of the originals are given in the Old Testament, -one in the 
Book of Kings, another in the Book of Chronicles. In the former record the height is 
given as 1 8 cubits, or (if a cubit is believed to have equalled 1 8 inches) 27 feet; in 
Chronicles, the height is given as 35 cubits, or 52 1/2 feet. This variation has 
occasioned much controversy but it is thought that the Book of Kings gives the height 
of but one pillar while Chronicles combines the two, making allowance for the sockets 
of the chapiters, or head pieces. These last items are the conspicuous features of the 

pillars and first challenge attention: Mackey has given a good description of the 
originals, as good as our scant knowledge makes possible: 

"Above the pillar, and covering its upper part to the depth of nine inches, was an oval 
body or chapiter seven feet and a half in height. Springing out from the pillar, at the 
junction of the chapiter with it, was a row of lotus petals, which, first spreading 
around the chapiter, afterwards gently curved downward towards the pillar, something 
like the Acanthus leaves on the capital of a Corinthian column. About two-fifths of 
the distance from the bottom of the chapiter, or just below its most bulging part, a 
tissue of network was carved, which extended over its whole upper surface. To the 
bottom of this network was suspended a series of fringes, and on these again were 
carved two rows of pomegranates, one hundred being in each row." 

The pillars were cylindrical in shape and were cast of brass; their combined weight is 
estimated to have been no less than fifty-three tons, one of them was called Boaz, the 
other Jachin: the former stood in the northeast comer of the porch, the latter in the 
southeast. To one who stood inside the temple looking out. Jachin stood at the right, 
Boaz at the left. What these names signified nobody knows, but some think the High 
Priest was wont to stand at one, the King at the other, on such occasions as when all 
the people held high celebrations at the Temple. According to tradition the pillars 
were cast in foundries situated between Succoth and Zeredatha, about thirty- five miles 
northeast of Jerusalem; jewelers of the holy city still use clay brought from that 

The symbolical pillars employed in our lodges should be of a size that best comports 
with their surroundings albeit there is a certain fitness in making them of one height 
throughout. Some believe that a cubit was only four inches in length; acting on this 
theory some American Grand Lodges claim the pillars to have been just six feet in 
height; one that they were 30 cubits, and twenty- five insist that they were thirty five 
cubits. The best authorities are now very sure that a cubit equalled eighteen inches 
according to our measurements; inasmuch as the Temple itself was only ninety feet 
long and thirty feet wide, thirty-five cubits would have been altogether out of 
proportion! But such discrepancies as these need not trouble us for to us the pillars are 
symbols only and quite as worthy of study when six feet high as when thirty. 

What do these pillars symbolize ? To Preston they stood for the pillar of cloud and of 
fire which guided the Israelites through the day and the night; to Caldecott they meant 
the principles of authority in religion and in politics whereby all social organization is 
guided: to Covey-Crump they have become the pictures of Space and Time, those two 
mighty monoliths through which the mind passes into all truth; and Albert Mackey, 
our own encyclopedist, makes them to stand for strength and stability. With these 
meanings we have no quarrel but there is, we believe, a far truer interpretation, one 
that goes right back to the Jewish Rabbis themselves who should have known the 
meaning of the symbols if they ever had any meaning. One of them wrote of them as 

"The names of the pillars signified potency and perpetuity; the pomegranates on their 
capitals or chapiters were symbols of generation." 

This, I myself believe, is the true interpretation. The pillars stand at the entrance to the 
Middle Chamber even as birth is the entrance to life. To pass between them into the 
lodge room means that a man is being bom into the world of Masonry; to pass 
between them and on up the Winding Stairs means that a man is being bom into one 
of the higher and more spiritual realms of the life Masonic, a thing high and noble for 
him that has a mind to think. 

Many of our ills come from a bad heredity; a man who poisons his blood makes war 
on the unborn; he is anti-Masonic, whatever be the watch-charm on his breast; he has 
placed rotten pillars before the house of life, and causes his children to pass through 
them, as heathen Israelites made their babes to pass through the fire to Moloch. What 
is tme of birth into life is true also of birth into any of the realms of man's life. If the 
pillars at the entrance to the home be strong and straight the child will live a clean, 
happy life; if wise men guard the doorway of the school our children can pass into the 
Middle Chamber of a real education, untainted by superstition, unpoisoned by bigotry. 
He who would become a wise master of life must learn the secret of the beginnings; a 
little deflection at the start means a long way off the path later on; he who begins 
aright and who perseveres until the end will himself become strong, a pillar 
strengthened and strengthening, against which kings and priests may lean, and past 
which others may safely go, seeking life, woe be it to humanity if ever it neglects to 
give, in any of its spheres, right birth to its children, its seekers, its learners ! 

IV On top of each of the two pillars thus described stand two globes, one the celestial, 
representing the heavens; the other the terrestrial, representing the earth. Whence 
came these, and what do they signify ? 

In answer to the first of these questions our scholars have offered two hypotheses first, 
that they are of Egyptian origin; second, that they are a modified form of the chapiters 
or headpieces of the pillars. The first of these theories was evidently suggested by the 
ancient Egyptian symbol of the winged globe, often found on the entablature above a 
temple, surrounded by a snake holding its tail in its mouth, and flanked by two wide 
outstretched wings. So common was this device that it became at last one of the 
national emblems, so that Isaiah speaks of Egypt as "the land of the winged globe." 
This globe was in all probability oval in shape, to suggest the egg, symbol of life; the 
serpent was the symbol of Infinity, the wings of power; combined, the figure stood for 
the infinite life- giving power of Deity. If it be supposed that the globe was a true 
circle then it may have represented the Sun, the first great God of Egypt, but the 
meaning remains practically the same. 

If our two globes could be made to serve as a modem form of the Egyptian winged 
globe they might be enriched in meaning and interest, but there is no evidence 
whatever that the older symbol ever transmigrated into Masonry. The probability is all 
against it, for we have two globes instead of one, and we do not have the serpent or 
the wings; besides, as actually exhibited, our globes manifestly refer to the earth and 
the heavens as modemly understood. 

V The chapiters on the two pillars were spherical in shape and always so represented. 
It would evidently seem, therefore, that the men who framed our ritual, among whom 
Preston was chief, simply modified the chapiters into globes. By why did they do 
this ? Because Preston and his school undertook to transform the lodge into a school, 
and consequently required symbols for geography and astronomy, two very important 
branches of the curriculum they outlined. This theory is verified, it seems to me, by 
reference to the Prestonian lectures, in which we find the following paragraphs, as 
slightly modified by Webb: 

"The sphere, with the parts of the earth delineated on its surface, is called the 
terrestrial globe; and that with the constellations and other heavenly bodies, the 
celestial globe." 

"The principal use of the globes, besides serving as maps to distinguish the outward 
parts of the earth and the situation of the fixed stars, is to illustrate and explain the 
phenomena arising from the annual revolution and the diurnal rotation of, the earth 
around its own axis. They are the noblest instruments for improving the mind (this 
was Preston's motive - H.L.H.) and giving it the most distinct idea of any problem or 
proposition, as well as enabling it to solve the same." 

Certain of our writers have ridiculed all this, arguing that it is trite and schoolboyish 
and that the placing of two such globes on top of two ancient pillars is a glaring 
anachronism. Granting as much, however, it may be that Preston builded better than 
he knew, for the two globes do symbolize a truth profound and fruitful of application; 
and if it be objected that this symbolism is modem, we may reply, What of it ? Surely 
we modems have as much right to fashion symbolism as the ancients! 

The monitors explain the globes as indicating the universality of Masonry, a subject to 
which we have already adverted; and, as inculcating reverence. This last is really a 
noble insight and not so banal as it sounds, because it is the central idea in no less a 
work of genius than the Book of Job, in which, as you will recall, the suffering 
patriarch learned to trust and revere the Creator by a contemplation of the power and 
majesty of the Creation. Beyond these monitorial inteipretations my own mind 
discovers in the two globes a symbol of the truth that we humans are citizens of two 
worlds, the earthly and the heavenly, the temporal and the eternal, the material and the 
physical. If it be charged that this is merely a private inteipretation I am willing to let 
the charge stand; for why were we released from the cabletow if it were not to 
encourage us to follow our own Light? 


Next, in view, come the two famous Pillars which stood in the Porch of the Temple; 
and were for Matter, Brass; for Form, Cylinders; for Height, 18 Cubits a piece; for 
Compass, twelve Cubits; for Diameter, about four Cubits, which is conceived to be 
the meaning of that expression, That they were four Cubits in the Porch, that is, the 
Chapiters were four Cubits Diameter, and so the Brass Cylinder under them, taking up 
so much ground-room in the Porch. But some there be, who would have the meaning 
to be this, that the Lilly-Work, which hung over the Pillars, was four Cubits deep 
round about the Chapiters. Indeed, the Chapiters seem to be of an Oval Form; for, 
their Diameter, in their middle, was four Cubits, and their Height five, if we compare 
the I King, 7:16 with the 19 ver. For having declared the measures of the Pillars, ver. 
15, he proceeds to describe the Measures and Ornaments of the Chapiters, and tells us, 
v. 16, that the height of each was five Cubits; and then mentioning some of their 
Ornaments, goes on to tell us, that the top of the Pillars (where they were placed) was 
of Lilly-Work, and that the Chapiters thus situated on the top of the Pillars, which had 
a compass of Lilly- work at their upper edge, were four Cubits, that is, in their middle 
Dimetient Line, and so were about twelve Cubits round, like unto the Pillar beneath. 
So that we may read and point the 19th verse thus (And the Chapiters which were on 
the head of the Pillars of Lilly-Work, were in the Porch four Cubits), that is, did 
comprehend in the Line measuring their Belly, as much as would take up four Cubits 
on the Floor of the Porch. So that Opus Lilii, is by apposition to be construed with 
Caput Columnarum; and the two other words (Four Cubits in the Porch) are to 
delineate the quantity of these Chapiters that stood on the Lilly-wrought head of the 
Pillars. The Accounts for this Construction may be two-fold. 

First, because this Verse aims not at the mention of the Lilly-work on the Pillars: for if 
it did, then were it superfluous to mention it again, as a particular work by itself, v. 22. 
Wherefore it seems, that this verse aims rather at the Description of the Chapiters set 
upon that Lilly- work, which are the principal things, and so more nicely described, the 
Lilly- work being but an Ornament. But, 

Secondly, if the hole of the Chapiter resting on the Pillar with this Lilly-work 
sustaining it, were as large as the Pillar it self, as is affirmed by some, to let in the top 
of the Pillar; and that this Lilly-work on the top of the Pillar, in a circling Border, 
stood out four Cubits in the Porch, at the bottom of the Chapiter, fastened to the top of 
the Pillar: then will there arise twelve Cubits Diameter, that is, four of the Pillar, and 
four on each side of this Lilly- work and so the pillars will be shut out of the Porch, 
which was but ten Cubits abroad, I King, 6:3. 

On the top of the Pillars then were two Chapiters, of five Cubits higher then the Pillars 
with Nets of Checker- work; and each Pillar had seven Wreaths of Chain- work, with 
two Rows of Pomegranates; in each Row, one hundred; but ninety six only could be 
seen by those that stood upon the Pavement of the Porch. So that there were on both 
Chapiters four hundred goodly Pomegranates in all which were put upon Chains in 
two Rows. Both Pillars joined together in their measure, were but thirty five Cubits 
high, that is twice eighteen, bating one Cubit, because each Chapiter did sink half a 
Cubit within the Socket of the Cylinder for their fastening. So that each Pillar, with its 
Chapiter, was twenty two Cubits, and, 1/2 high. The Pillars seventeen, and 1/2, and 
the Chapiter five: Whereas 'tis said each Chapiter was but three Cubits high, it's to be 
understood of the stately embroidery, and Ornaments of Net- work, Chains, and 
Pomegranates, which were at the beginning of the third Cubit. Thus being fitted and 
prepared, they were placed within the Porch; the Pillar on the right side that is, the 
South was called Jachin, (being the future Hiphil from stabilize). He shall establish: 
noting the fixediness of this pillar upon its Foundation, and that on the left hand, or on 
the North side, was called Boaz, denoting the strength and firmitude of that stately 
piece of Brass. These famous Pillars, though never so strong, were broken in pieces, 
and conveyed to the City of Babylon; but Saints, that are Spiritual Pillars in the House 
of God, shall go no more out of that Heavenly Temple. 

From Lee's "Orbis Miraeulum," 1669. 

I need do nothing contrary to my mind and divinity, since no one can force me to act 
thus, or force me to act against my own judgment. Marcus Aurelius. 



The author of this interesting paper is one of the veteran Masonic scholars of England 
to whom THE BUILDER has been often indebted; he is almost the last of the band of 
giants who composed the Quatuor Coronati group of savants. Accepting the Old 
Testament record as he finds it, he has endeavored to ascertain therefrom the position 
of the two great pillars with what results the following essay will show- we hope that 
Brother Thoip will be yet spared to the Craft for many years. Editor. 

IN endeavouring to fix the respective positions of the two brazen pillars at the 
Porchway-entrance of King Solomon's Temple, I must first give a brief historical 
account, as well as describe the form and situation, both of the original Tabernacle 
and also of the Temple itself, as a proper understanding of these will materially assist 
in estimating the evidence that I have to bring forward. 

The Tabernacle was erected in the wilderness by Moses, Aholiab and Bezaleel, by the 
special command of the G. A. O. T. U., according to instructions given by Him to 
Moses on Mount Sinai the form, situation, ornaments, and furniture being minutely 
given, and as minutely and faithfully carried out by His faithful servants, as we find 
recorded in the Book of Exodus, chapters 25, 26, 27. The word "Tabernacle" means 
'tent of meeting," the place where the Holy One meets with the congregation, and 
Whey with Him, and it was the centre and seat of the Hebrew Theocracy. The 
theocracy was a kingdom, of which God was King, and the Tabernacle was His palace 
or abode; the kingdom was visible, so was the palace, so was at least the Presence of 
the King; there the people had audience of the Monarch, and thence He issued 
commands in a way cognizable by the senses for their guidance. 

It will be best to proceed with the account of the Tabernacle, (1) beginning from the 
outside and going inwards, as one would naturally do who inspected it for the first 
time. The first object that would present itself is the Court; this, although an important 
part of the whole edifice, was, strictly speaking, no part of the Tabernacle, being 
merely a large enclosure in the shape of a parallelogram, with the narrow ends 
situated east and west; the only entrance to this Court was in the east. As confirmation 
of this, take the following passage from Exodus, chapter 38: 

"And he made the court: on the south side southward the hangings of the court were . . 
. an hundred cubits their pillars twenty; and for the north side an hundred cubits, their 
pillars twenty. And for the west side fifty cubits, their pillars ten. And for the east side 
eastward fifty cubits; the hangings of the one side of the gate were fifteen cubits, their 
pillars three; and for the other side of the court gate fifteen cubits, their pillars three; 
and for the gate of the court twenty cubits, their pillars four." 

Going into the outer court by the entrance at the east, and proceeding westward, we 
come first to the Altar of Burnt Offering; passing this, to the Laver, at which the 
priests washed their hands before entering the Tabernacle, then immediately we reach 
the entrance of the Tabernacle itself. 

The Tabernacle, like the outer Court, was of rectangular form, having its entrance in 
the east, and at a point two-thirds of its length from the entrance, was divided into two 
portions by a hanging vail; the larger portion was called the Holy Place, the smaller 
portion, or westmost part, was called the Sanctum Sanctorum, or Holy of Holies. The 
Holy Place contained the Altar of Incense, symbol of prayer and thanks, opposite the 
entrance, together with the Table of Shewbread, symbol of holy deeds and works of 
faith, on the north side; and the Golden Candlestick, symbol of heavenly light, on the 
south side. The Holy of Holies contained only one object, viz.: a small gilt rectangular 
chest, with a lid of solid gold, and on each end, attached to the lid, a small winged 
human figure of solid gold. The chest was called the Ark of the Covenant, and within 
it were deposited the two tables of the Law; the golden lid was called the Mercy Seat, 
and the two figures Cherubim, and from between them, on the Mercy Seat, the 
G.A.O.T.U. spoke to the High Priest. The whole of the people were admitted into the 
Court, but Priests only into the Tabernacle, whilst into the Sanctum Sanctorum the 
High Priest alone entered once a year, after many washings and purifications, to make 
atonement for the sins of the people. 

The Tabernacle was completed and erected on the first day of the first month of the 
second year of the Exodus, and it was carried about by the Israelites during all their 
wanderings in the wilderness. After their entrance into Canaan, it was first set up in 
Gilgal, afterwards at Shiloh, still later at Gibeon and Jerusalem, and for a period of 
447 years it was esteemed the centre of the religious life and worship of the people; 
and it was not until the Temple was erected by King Solomon that it ceased to be 
such, and until, as we read in II. Chronicles, chap. 5, "that Solomon brought up the 

Ark and all the holy vessels from the Tabernacle on Zion Hill, and placed them in the 
Temple that he had made." 

The incongruity of a settled people having only a tent for the celebration of their 
splendid ritual service, first occurred to the mind of David. It appeared unseemly to 
him that the Ark of God should still dwell "between curtains," while he abode in a 
"house of cedar." He therefore proposed to build a Temple, in which the worship of 
God might be more becomingly conducted. The prophet Nathan was, however, 
commissioned to inform him that having been engaged in constant warfare, and shed 
much human blood, he could not be allowed to execute the design he had formed, 
which was to be reserved for the peaceful reign of his son Solomon. This undertaking 
was, however, the principal subject of David's thought and care during the remainder 
of his reign, and to it he appropriated a large proportion of the immense treasure 
which his many victories produced. He may be said to have provided all, or nearly all, 
the materials before his death, secured the services of skilful mechanics and artificers 
for every branch of the work, and furnished the design, plan, and site of the building, 
so that more of the credit of this work seems due to David than to Solomon. 

The foundation of the Temple was laid B. C. 1012, being the fourth year of Solomon's 
reign, and in seven years and a half it was completed, during which time no less than 
183,000 persons were employed in the work. 

The Temple, (2) in its general idea, did not materially differ from the Tabernacle; it 
was situated also due east and west, but had three entrances, viz.: at the north, south, 
and east (referred to in the Masonic Traditional History). The general form of the 
Tabernacle was retained in the Temple, and like the Tabernacle, the Temple looked 
towards the east, having the Most Holy Place at the extreme west. The principal 
entrance was at the east, where there was a porch, adorned by two large brazen pillars. 
We have in the volume of the S. L. two accounts of these pillars; one will ho found in 
I. Kings, chap. 7. and is as follows: 

"And King Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre. . . . And he came to King 
Solomon, and wrought all his work. For he east two pillars of brass of eighteen cubits 
high apiece. (3) . . . And he made two chapiters of molten brass to set upon the top of 

the pillars: the height of the one chapiter was five cubits, and the height of the other 
chapiter was five cubits: and nets of checker work, and wreaths of chain work, for the 
chapiters which were upon the top of the pillars. . . And he set up the pillars in the 
porch of the Temple: and he set up the right pillar, and called the name thereof Jachin: 
and he set up the left pillar, and called the name thereof Boaz. . . And he made a 
Molten Sea. . . And he made ten bases of brass Then made he ten lavers of brass, . . . 
and upon every one of the ten bases (placed he) one laver. And he put five bases on 
the right side of the house, and five on the left side of the house; and he set the sea on 
the right side of the house eastward over against the south. 

Again, in II. Chronicles, chapter 4: 

"Also he made a Molten Sea of ten cubits. . . He made also ten lavers, and put five on 
the right hand, and five on the left, to wash in them: such things as they offered for the 
burnt offering they washed in them; but the sea was for the priests to wash in. And he 
made ten candlesticks of gold, according to their form, and set them in the Temple, 
five on the right hand, and five on the left. He also made ten tables, and placed them 
in the Temple, five on the right hand, and five on the left. . . And he set the sea on the 
right side of the east end, over against the south." 

When finished, the Temple was dedicated with great solemnity by King Solomon; but 
its day of glory was not of long continuance. The revolt of the ten tribes in the next 
reign withdrew from it a large proportion of the worshippers, and scarcely forty years 
had Passed when the Egyptian Shishak spoiled it of many of its treasures. Successive 
plunderings followed rapidly, till, by reason of the great wickedness of the people, the 
Holy City and Temple were laid in ruins by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, after 
the sacred building had stood about 416 years. 

The second Temple was built by Zerubbabel, after the return of the Jews from their 
Babylonian captivity; this Temple was as near as possible a counterpart of the first, 
although greatly inferior to it in beauty and splendour, and was completed about B. C. 


This Temple stood for about five hundred years, when Herod the Great sought to 
rival, if not to exceed, the greatness of Solomon, by the erection of the third Temple. 
He took the old one down piecemeal, and put up the other in its place, so as to 
preserve the continuity of the edifice; and it was said to be, except in respect of its 
magnificence and splendour, an exact copy of the original Temple built by Solomon. 
Indeed the porchway entrance was still called "Solomon's Porch," and is thus spoken 
of in the New Testaments 

About this time there lived and flourished the great Jewish historian, Flavius 
Josephus, a man of noble family, being descended on his mother's side from the 
Asmonean princes, and on his father's side from the highest of the priestly families, 
himself being also a priest, this Josephus wrote a history of the Jews, under the 
auspices off the Roman Emperors, Vespasian and Titus, and in this history he gives a 
full description of Solomon's Temple. 

Josephus was well acquainted with Herod's Temple, which it must be remembered 
was an exact copy of Solomon's; he was accustomed to officiate therein, and was an 
eye-witness of its destruction by the Romans under Titus, A. D. 70. 

This history of Josephus was written in Greek, and the following description of the 
pillars is from a translation made by William Whiston, professor in the University of 
Cambridge. It is as follows: 

"Moreover, this Hiram made two pillars, whose outsides were of brass, . . . there was 
cast with each of their chapiters lily-work, that stood upon the pillars, and it was 
elevated five cubits, round about which there was net-work interwoven with small 
palms, made of brass, and covered the lily- work. To this also were hung two hundred 
pomegranates, in two rows. The one of these pillars he set at the entrance of the porch, 
on the right hand, and called it Jachin; and the other on the left hand, and called it 
Boaz. ... He also made ten large round brass vessels, which were the Savers, . . . and 
he set five of the lavers on the left side of the temple, which was on that side towards 
the north wind, and as many on the right side, towards the south." 

And then he adds the following explanation: 

"By the right hand is meant what is against our left, when we suppose ourselves going 
up from the east gates of the courts, towards the Tabernacle: whence it follows that 
the pillar Jachin, on the right hand of the Temple, was on the south, against our left 
hand; and Boaz on the north, against our right hand." 

Here, then, we have the evidence of a man, who was personally acquainted with 
Herod's Temple, which was a copy of Solomon's, and who was familiar with the 
opinions of men of his time, as to the various parts of the sacred edifice. His veracity 
and trustworthiness as a historian are seldom questioned, and his statements therefore 
we may safely accept as facts. 

I think that the three extracts I have given two from the Vol. of the S. L. and one from 
the historian Josephus, settle the respective positions of the two pillars, Boaz and 

(1) See cut "Plan A." (2) See cut "Plan B." (3) In II. Chronicles, chap. 3, the height of 
the pillars is given as 35 cubits, which included the pedestals on which the pillars 
stood, and also the chapiters. (4) John x., 23; Acts iii., 11: Acts v., 12. 


One thing is perfectly clear about the design of the Temple, and that is that the plan of 
it was not an original one, for it was designed to be only a copy on a larger scale of 
the Tabernacle. This want of originality in design was also reflected in its 
ornamentation, for the King of Tyre being appealed to for assistance, which was 

evidently lacking in Jerusalem at the time, at.- artificer was sent from Tyre itself to 
supply those ideas which were needed at the headquarters of the building. One can 
imagine Hiram the Architect gazing at the plans which merely attempted to translate 
into the more lasting form of stone the temporary woodwork of the Tabernacle, and 
wondering in what way it could be improved. His thoughts would naturally turn to the 
Temple which stood in Tyre itself, and which is thus described by Herodotus, the 
Greek Historian (B. ii., c. 44), "And being desirous of obtaining certain information 
from whatever source I could, I sailed to Tyre in Phoenicia, having heard that there 
was there a Temple dedicated to Hercules; and I saw it richly adorned with a great 
variety of offerings, and in it were two pillars, one of fine gold, the other of emerald 
stone, both shining exceedingly at night." ache Temple was probably open to the air, 
and the historian is picturing the magnificent view of the pillars as they appeared by 
bright moonlight. 

Hiram, when summoned to Jerusalem, might naturally have bethought himself of 
these magnificent pillars of the Tyrian temple, and designed two others of different 
shape and different materials, but yet intended by him to be as noteworthy as those of 
his native city. 

ft will probably be remarked that Herodotus viewed the Temple at Tyre in 443 B. C., 
or about 550 years after the temple at Jerusalem had been built, but on this question he 
expressly tells us that the priests at Tyre assured him that their temple had stood for 
2,300 years, and consequently it must have been in existence prior to King Solomon's 

Whether the two pillars in King Hiram's temple had any special religious significance, 
or were merely architectural necessities, remains to be seen, but it is worthy of 
attention that amongst the Egyptians, who were the earliest builders of the world, and 
from whom other peoples, and probably also the Tyrians, derived their ideas, pillars 
were held in great honour, and that the Egyptian great god Osiris was known as the 
"Lord of the Pillars." One of the familiar scenes in Egyptian sculptures was the great 
festival of "setting up the pillars," in which the Kings took a prominent part. 

F. Armitage, A. Q. C., Vol. 1. 


A smooth sea never made a skillful mariner, neither do uninterrupted prosperity and 
Success qualify for usefulness and happiness. The storms of adversity, like those of 
the ocean, rouse the faculties, and excite the invention, prudence, skill, and fortitude 
of the voyager. The martyrs of ancient times, in bracing their minds to outward 
calamities, acquired a loftiness of puipose and a moral heroism worth a lifetime of 
softness and security. Anon. 

— o — 



WITHOUT a League of Nations there would have been no King Solomon's Temple. 
This is no idle Masonic boast, nor is it founded on tradition, but a fact of history 
attested to by Holy Writ and the Jewish historian Josephus. There can be no doubt of 
the former and the latter has long been accepted as reliable. About the year 1050 B. C. 
we hear for the first time in Phoenician history of a king on the throne of Tyre, 
Abibalus or Abi-Baal by name, and he began to reign about the same time that David 
was acclaimed king by the tribe of Judah at Hebron in Palestine. While David was still 
in the prime of his career Abibalus was succeeded by his son Hiram, a prince of great 
energy and keen statesmanship. In viewing the political conditions of his day he 
seems to have realized that his neighbor was one worthy of friendship and one with 
whom political and commercial relations would be beneficial. Acting on this 
judgment we find him sending messengers to David at Jerusalem with a present of 
"timber of cedar, with masons and carpenters to build him an house." 1 Chron. 14:1. 
Later when David was assembling materials for the Temple "the Zidonians and they 
of Tyre" i.e. subjects of Hiram "brought much cedar wood to David." 1 Chron. 22:14. 

This friendship continued until the close of David's reign "for Hiram was ever a lover 
of David," 1 Kings 5:1. Immediately Hiram heard that Solomon had succeeded to his 
father's throne, he sent an embassy to present his congratulations, and this gave the 
opportunity sought by the new king to enter into negotiations for the materials needed 
to realize the purpose of his father David and erect the Temple to Jehovah. 
Correspondence ensued between these two monarchs which resulted in the formation 
of a League or Covenant of Nations on terms of very great intimacy. The letters which 
passed between the two rulers were preserved in their respective capitals, and the 
Tyrian versions are said to have been still extant in the public record office of the city 
in the first century of the Christian era. Josephus Ant. Jud. VIII, 2, §6. "And they two 
made a League" (1 Kings 5: 12) is the terse summing up of the sacred writer but like 
so many other brief passages, much is contained therein no less than an early "League 
of Nations" which made possible peace and harmony between two great nations and 
left to the world a glorious witness to this Covenant in that magnificent structure on 
Mount Moriah. 

The terms of the League are familiar to all Masons. The wheat, barley, oil and wine so 
abundant in Palestine was given in exchange for the timber of Lebanon and the labor 
of artificers, workers in metal, carpenters and masons. The casting of the pillars 
known as "Jachin and Boaz" in the mud of the valley of the Jordan, the "molten sea" 
standing on twelve oxen, and "the lavers standing on wheels" are among the 
outstanding works of the Tyrian workmen led by that other Hiram whom the king sent 
because of his skill. At the close of the Temple building the following still closer 
"entente cordiale" was arranged. The Tyrians possessed abundant ships and their 
sailors "had full knowledge of the sea" and held practically the whole of the trade in 
the Mediterranean Sea. King Solomon on his side controlled the Red Sea and the land 
routes leading to it, and had access to the lucrative traffic with Arabia and possibly 
India. A close commercial union was thus beneficial to both nations and was duly 
arranged. Hiram admitted Solomon to a participation in his western traffic and the two 
kings maintained a joint "navy of Tarshish" which "once in three years came bringing 
gold and silver, ivory, and apes and peacocks." 1 Kings 10:22. In return Solomon 
opened to Hiram the route to the East by way of the Red Sea, "and King Solomon 
made a navy of ships in Eziongeber, which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red 
Sea, in the land of Edom. And Hiram sent in the navy his servants, shipmen that had 
knowledge of the sea, with servants of Solomon. And they came to Ophir, and fetched 
from thence gold, four hundred and twenty talents, and brought it to King Solomon." 

1 Kings 9 :26. This League of Nations continued happily during the life-time of the 
two kings and until the disruptions which followed the death of Solomon and the 
domestic troubles of Tyre caused it to pass into insignificance. After several 

generations a descendant of Hiram, Ithobal by name, made an alliance with Israel by 
giving in marriage his daughter Jezebel to King Ahab. But that is another story. 

These historical facts prove that only by the union of these two powers in a League or 
Covenant could the materials or workmen have been gathered together for the 
construction of the temple. King Solomon had the wealth and ambition and much 
labor but Hiram possessed the skilled workmen and the metals, and only by 
harmonious agreement could these necessary men and materials have been gathered 
together and the work completed. This League of Nations, while not the first recorded 
in history, is worthy of note as so much of it centres around the Temple. All Leagues 
and Covenants of necessity, if they are to be abiding, must centre around the Temple. 
Not necessarily that Temple of Solomon or any other king or nation but rather that 
spiritual Temple, "that house not made with hands, eternal in the Heavens." 

The Temple held, and though for many years hidden, "that which was lost" is the true 
secret of national harmony and individual greatness. All true and worthy Masons 
believe this, and are seeking the establishment of right principles in the world, all of 
which have their origin in Him to whom the Temple was erected and in whom all 
these reconstructive principles can alone be realized. A "League of Masons" is 
appearing and must undoubtedly come into being. The spirit of the age and the trend 
of world affairs demand it. And what shall be its contribution to the world narrow, 
exclusive, secret benefit only? Far be such a puipose from Masonry! Our order exists 
for the betterment of mankind and its tenets so beautifully taught in symbolism are 
those very principles which will make possible an abiding League of Nations not only 
for the abolition of war, but for the reconstructing of Society on an equitable basis of 
justice and true brotherhood. Freedom of religious opinion and political thought are 
the very essence of the right of self determination so much talked of today between 
nations, and Masons well know what place these principles hold among our 
Fraternity. Masonry has a glorious part to contribute in this reconstruction period, and 
as her sons fought for Freedom and Truth in the more strenuous days of war may her 
sons be equally aggressive, but in a more peaceful manner, for the rebuilding of our 
social scheme and of putting a new soul into this old world. Masonry holds to those 
principles of right represented to the world by the Presence in the Temple, and as it 
was true that without a League of Nations there could have been no Temple, so it is 
equally true that without the Temple and its principles and Presence, there can be no 
League of Nations. 


The Pharaoh himself might reasonably expect that his imposing tomb would long 
survive the destruction of the less enduring structures in which his nobles were laid, 
and that his endowments, too, might be made to outlast those of his less powerful 
contemporaries. The pyramid as a stable form in architecture has impressed itself 
upon all time. Beneath this vast mountain of stone, as a result of its mere mass and 
indestructibility alone, the Pharaoh looked forward to the permanent survival of his 
body, and of the personality with which it was so indissolubly involved. Moreover, 
the origin of the monument, hitherto overlooked, made it a symbol of the highest 
sacredness, rising above the mortal remains of the king, to greet the Sun, whose 
offspring the Pharaoh was. 

The pyramid form may be explained by an examination of the familiar obelisk form. 
The obelisk, as is commonly known, is a symbol sacred to the Sun-god. So far as I am 
aware, however, little significance has heretofore been attached to the fact that the 
especially sacred portion of the obelisk is the pyramidal apex with which it is 
surmounted. An obelisk is simply a pyramid upon a lofty base which has indeed 
become the shaft. In the Old Kingdom Sun-temples at Abusir, this is quite clear, the 
diameter of the shaft being at the bottom quite one-third of its height. Thus the shaft 
appears as a high base, upon which the surmounting pyramid is supported. This 
pyramidal top is the essential part of the monument and the significant symbol which 
it bore. The Egyptians caned it a benben (or benbenet), which we translate 
"pyramidion," and the shaft or high base would be without significance without it. 
Thus, when Sesostris 1 proclaims to posterity the survival of his name in his 
Heliopolis monuments, he says: 

"My beauty shall be remembered in his house, My name is the pyramidion and my 
name is the lake." 

His meaning is that his name shall survive on his great obelisks, and in the sacred lake 
which he excavated. The king significantly designates the obelisk, however, by the 
name of its pyramidal summit. Now the long recognized fact that the obelisk is sacred 
to the sun, carries with it the demonstration that it is the pyramid surmounting the 
obelisk which is sacred to the Sun-god. Furthermore, the Sanctuary at Heliopolis was 
early designated the "Benbenhouse," that is the "pyramidion house." The symbol, 
then, by which the sanctuary of the Suntemple at Heliopolis was designated was a 
pyramid. Moreover, there was in this same Sun- temple a pyramidal object called a 
"ben," presumably of stone standing in the "Phoenix-louse and upon this pyramidal 
object the Sun-god in the form of a Phoenix had in the beginning first appeared. This 
object was already sacred as far back as the middle of the third millennium B. C., and 
will doubtless have been vastly older. We may conjecture that it was one of those 
sacred stones, which gained their sanctity in times far back of all recollection or 
tradition, like the Ka'aba at Mecca. In hieroglyphic the Phoenix is represented as 
sitting upon this object, the form of which was a universally sacred symbol of the 
Sun-god. Hence it is that in the Pyramid Texts the king's pyramid tomb is placed 
under the protection of the Sun-god in two very clear chapters, the second of which 
opens with a reference to the fact that the Sun-god when he created the other gods was 
sitting aloft on the ben as a Phoenix, and hence it is that the king's pyramid is placed 
under his protection. 

From Breasted's "Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt." 

— o — 



I dreamt that I went to the Temple 
And came to the Tyler's door, 

I was clothed and waiting to enter 
And sit with my brothers once more, 

When there came to my mind a summons 
From a questioner in my soul: 

"Let us pause outside for a reason 
While the craft responds to the roll." 

So I sat there with him who summoned 
And he asked me to answer him 
And say if full service I'd rendered, 

Or whether my zeal had grown dim. 

Can you, O my brother, and truly, 

Say now that you've wrought as you could 
On the block the Master has given? 

Will He say your work has been good? 

"Have you kept your tools in your bosom 
All polished and sharpened and bright, 

Or used them in Brotherhood's service, 

So they must be whetted tonight ? 

"The tools that the Master has given 
Were placed in your hands to be used; 

The talents He gave to His servant 
To grow in the hearts He has fused." 

And I to the questioner answered: 

"O thou who my secrets can read 
But let me go back to my hewing 
To serve Him in truth and in deed. 

"I will fill my years with His service, 

I will use my tools ev'ry day, 

Then be ready to serve on the morrow 
By edging them all as I pray." 

It is better to admonish than to reproach; for the one is mild and friendly, the other 
harsh and offensive; the one corrects the faulty, the other only convicts them. - 

Success is growing to our full spiritual stature, under God's sky. - Thomas Carlyle. 




THE critical times through which we are passing - the aftermath of war - is of 
immeasurable import to every Mason in these United States. No one dare minimize the 
danger of what we might term national disintegration that is confronting us. The hydra- 
headed monster of discontentment looms up everywhere. Strikes, riots and revolutions 
face us in small or great degree in every comer of the land. Social equilibrium and 
sanity are wanting almost everywhere. Cupidity, fear and hatred are enthroned after the 
dark night of sorrow for the whole world. 

War, we were told, was made to prevent war. And yet there are wars today that threaten 
the bulwarks of civilization as persistently as they were threatened prior to the great 
cataclysm. Idealism abroad has clad itself in the habiliments of terror and its promises 
have left its votaries stranded on the sands of impotence. Class consciousness, as a 
guide to those who strive for more humane conditions for labor and life, has intoxicated 
its millions the wide world over with the wine of selfishness that urges them to an 
inconsiderate action that cannot but breed misery and sorrow for all should it be carried 
out. Indeed if there is to be a continuation of this orgy of discontent it is a grave 
question whether some of us will not live to see the ushering in of a new barbarism or 
worse savagery. 

Dark forebodings these. But who of thought upon the seriousness of national affairs is 
not violently disturbed, when he reasons upon these questions. Yet from those who 
think must we look for the expression of hope. The student of history may well assure 
us that God is not dead and that ultimately all will be well. A power not ourselves - but 
always using the human channel - has ever hitherto prevailed for righteousness. Let us, 
then, as Masons who pride ourselves upon having in our midst those who have learned 
to control their passions, reveal our sanity. 

From every walk in life we have men who have been admitted, passed and made 
masters of life by the sublimity of Masonic teaching. Let us in these trying moments 
recall those things that are large with importance for every Mason who loves his 
country. Likewise let us not forget the noble part that Masonry, through her wisest and 
best sons, has played in the past in the molding of the character of this nation. While 
some of us are grappling with the realization for the world of a league of nations let us 
not overlook our urgent need of realizing in our own midst a league of Americans. May 
we not, indeed, declare that we are engaged in this great land in the task of working out 
and demonstrating as practicable that which many are asking for as a government for 
the whole world? 

We Americans are engaged in the greatest experiment that any people have engaged in 
since the world began - demonstrating the validity of democratic institutions for the 
service, comfort and uplift of man. We know no aristocracy save that which is a 
landmark of our Institution - the aristocracy of character. From all lands did our 
forefathers and many among us today come. From heath the heel of a Lord who lived 
on a hill they came, each with a hope and a promise that within these borders each 
should find a hill for himself. Antecedents were lost sight of in the face of the 
opportunity for independence that brightened the horizon. Americanism, a thing ever of 
the spirit, was bom with the vision of new possibilities, and no danger was tap great to 
be faced, no sacrifice too exacting for the realization of a land where neither faiths nor 
castles were to deny the honest effort for the attainment of the things worth living for. 

The evil days that are threatening, clouding our sky, engendered largely by a sort of 
national paranoia, greed for wealth, have obscured the significance of the divine 
mission of the people of these United States. We have loosely aped the habits and 
customs and civilization of others instead of diligently working out the ideal of an 
enlightened democracy that is commensurate of our abilities. We have imported art and 

science, literature and religious faddism, and finally Bolshevism. The house again is 
divided and cannot stand unless there is a determined concentration of effort for the 
realization of a league of Americans. 

We extracted sacrifice from every citizen during the great struggle as the foundation of 
success for the common cause. Now we must impose upon ourselves in this, the most 
trying moment of our national history, that which we deemed to be right and just when 
we contested for right on the field of battle. 

Masons of high ideals were the guarantors of this Republic at its inception, and today 
from every lodge large and small must go Masons consecrated to keep this nation off 
the rocks of disaster. Corporations and trades-unions have Masons among them. Their 
Masonry can only be interpreted today in terms of patriotism. Wise restraint must be 
exercised everywhere. Passion must give way to reasoning, hate to dispassionate 
inquiry. The heart of the American people is sound, and woe betide Masonry if its two 
millions, representing probably ten millions of souls, are not revealing the Americanism 
of Washington, Lincoln and Roosevelt. 

As at the birth of this nation Masons left lodge rooms imbued with the holiest purpose 
hitherto known to men, so these days out of our lodges must we go, missionaries of true 
freedom, worthy of our traditions and of those of our sires who kept faith with God 
and man, and by their labors and sorrows gave us this goodly land of freemen. Away 
with class hatred and Bolshevism, away with our cupidity and incompetent 
administrators and makers of law whether of high or low station! On with a new 
America that will be a reflection of the dream of its founders and a type of the City of 
God! Robert Tipton. 

* * * 


Nations have been disrupted by differences in languages. Differences in languages have 
caused more wars than differences in religion; more unhappiness than all other causes 

For the sake of the Republic, we should plead for American Unity. Unity cannot obtain 
or be preserved with foreign colonies fenced in and neighborhoods closed to callers and 
with preaching and teaching in foreign languages. 

Brethren, I would break up all cliques in our Government. It is a big undertaking to 
govern this people. Even now the forces of dissension and anarchy are beating upon our 
shores and it will take the steadfast patriotism of all our people to drive them back and 
to assure the life and perpetuity of this nation. 

Here and at this time, we should all possess the American spirit. Indulge in American 
Music; American Art; American Literature; American Customs; American Ideals; 
American Education and above all, we ought not to flatter everything which is brought 
here from other countries, and whether that be humans or merchandise does not matter. 
America cannot attain its highest standing among nations, half foreign and half 

All newspapers printed in this country should be in English. All public speeches on 
national questions should be on English. All telephonic and telegraphic 
communications in this country should be in English. 

Yes, every man should be required to transact his business at the bank, the counting- 
house, at the grocer, the tailor and all public places in the English language, not by 
reason of spite or to annoy or harass but to adopt simply a wise precaution. 

An alien language gives the alien viewpoint and if this country is to endure, we must 
have nothing but the American viewpoint. 

If we all set to and earnestly and faithfully follow these things, ere long we shall be 
cemented into one complete and undivided people possessing one country, one flag, 
one language, one contentment, one God. 

William S. Farmers Grand Master, New York. 


The brethren of San Francisco have recently had brought home to them certain startling 
facts which strongly illustrate the character of the opposition Masonry has to meet in 
some countries where it is striving to raise the torch of enlightenment, in propagating 
intelligent thought and liberty of action. 

When a few months ago, the Grand Master of Philippine Masonry and a number of his 
brethren passed through San Francisco on their way to Washington to appeal for the 
absolute independence of the Philippine Islands, they stopped long enough in this city 
by the Golden Gate to give an insight to our brethren of the obstacles set in their path 
before American occupation. Under Spanish regime, to be a Mason meant to be a traitor 
to his country; to be the possessor of a lambskin apron, deemed in all ages an emblem 
of innocence, meant persecution and in the words of one of our distant brethren, 
punishment perhaps worse than death - deportation to far-off portions of the islands 
where radically different climatic conditions were sure to undermine health and where 
barbarism was given full sway. 

Tom from those nearest and dearest to him, such was his punishment for daring to 
aspire to see the light; - to perform the duties he owed to God, his country, his neighbor 
and himself, in accordance with the dictates of his own conscience! 

To be caught at a meeting clandestinely held, meant term of imprisonment, physical or 
mental torture, in endeavors to extort from him, by force or otherwise, the manner of 
teaching the most excellent tenets of Freemasonry - brotherly love, relief and truth! 

American occupation changed all that, just as it changed the standard of living of nearly 
all the inhabitants of the more than six hundred Philippine Islands. Instead of physical 
and Financial exploitation and compulsion in religious belief, the pioneer of "Farthest 
America" extending into thy wilderness was the bamboo school house! Here was the 
original center of civilization, at first looked upon with extreme suspicion, but when 
discovered to be harmless and helpful, flocked to by the population, young and old. 

By progressive education and enlightenment, the Filipino mind was gradually brought 
to a sense of responsibility which, in generations to come will enable him to enjoy 
freedom of thought and liberty of action, individually and collectively, in like 
proportion as the white race in highly civilized countries has stricken off its fetters and 
developed its spirit upward and onward. 

But many countries of the white race are still in the dark; teeming millions yet await the 
first slender beam of light penetrating to them, to give them hope! These millions are 
yet ill-prepared to assume control of their national burdens; relieved of the iron shackles 
of autocracy, they yet are willing prey to the mental bondage of religious hierarchy. 
There is yet hope for these peoples, but before they can be accepted into a family of free 
nations, they must be first duly and truly prepared. In this the task of Masonry is yet 
before it. Will she be equal to the task? 

That Masonry will be equal to this task must never for a moment be held in doubt, for 
far greater have been the emergencies through which her course from her dim, distant 
origin has passed. But she must work conscientiously, breaking down barrier after 

barrier of ignorance and persecution, until the true light reaches to the uttermost limits 
of the most distant countries. Her path will not be easy, for her most virulent opponents 
work under cover in the dark and never sleep; therefore opposition from unexpected 
sources must be met at times both opportune and inopportune. There must be 
rehabilitation, first of all of Masonry itself in the war-stricken countries. Assured of its 
own sound future, it will help to promulgate peace and purity of principles to what were 
recently enemy countries, but from west to east the travels must continue, this time not 
to seek, but to spread further light in Masonry! 

Thus legitimate propaganda will become effective in countries experiencing their first 
flight on the wings of freedom and a new generation, like the Filipino during the recent 
past, will bear aloft the same glorious golden tiara which has made our own country the 
foremost leader of nationals and the unchallenged protector of mankind. - The Junior 

— o- 

A fool with a good memory is full of ideas and facts, but he can't draw sound 
conclusions from them; everything turns upon that. - Vauvenargues. 

— o — 



The object of this Department is to acquaint our readers with time-tried Masonic books 
not always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being published; and with 
such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons. The Library Editor will 

be very glad to render any possible assistance to studious individuals or to study clubs 
and lodges, either through this Department or by personal correspondence; if you wish 
to learn something concerning any book, what is its nature, what is its value, or how it 
may be obtained - be free to ask him. If you have read a book which you think is worth 
a review write us about it; if you desire to purchase a book - any book - we will help 
you get it, with no charge for the service. Make this YOUR Department of Literary 

AS THE winter approaches studious Masons turn their thoughts to the great indoors. 
The nook with a book, the fireside and lamp, the long hours of evening afford moments 
for the courtship of the wisest and best that ever have walked the earth among men. 
Wisdom, studiousness, thoughtfulness should be the virtues gracing the life of the 
Mason claimed by the mighty passion of building the spiritual Temple, and he should 
welcome the hour when the sanctum is open to his will and pleasure. 

Were we to file an indictment against the American Mason it would be that he had 
ceased to be a thinker - a Masonic thinker. Verily we believe that even as we often 
discover many ministers of religion are impoverished of books that would minister to 
their power as leaders of men in religious activity, even so we believe that the too 
frequent failure on the part of Masons to give intelligible interpretation to Masonic 
thought, practice and idealism, is due to the lack of such valuable information as is to be 
obtained through the channels of literature. 

You will observe that we say "literature," without any particular specification as to what 
kind of literature. Let us accept as axiomatic that all literature that is constructive in 
character building is of fundamental import. A serious mistake has been made, we 
believe, in assigning to but certain classes of books the title "Masonic." We often say at 
the making of a Mason whose character is such as to commend him to our fellowship, 
that "he was already a Mason" and all that was needed was the initiation into the 
fraternal ranks to complete his investiture. May we not say the same things of the books 
which do not bear the legalized Masonic stamp, but are ever constructively helpful in 
the building of the City of God? 

The future policy of this department will be the continuation of the puipose of bringing 
to the notice of THE BUILDER readers those books that are constant in their telling of 
things for the good of the Order. The searcher after truth can in no wise afford to ignore 
the humble offering of the scholar to the enlightenment of the world, and as those 
whose lives are consecrated by a solemn charge to the betterment of the world it 
behoves us to consider deeply the theoretical contributions of economists and 
sociologists whose work purports the amelioration of those evils resultant from 
revolutionary world conditions. To be a scholar is imperatively enjoined upon every 
Mason, and a scholar has said "The sage of concord is man thinking.” 

Life in order to be progressive persists in demanding of us moments of retrospection. 
Such retrospection ought to afford us the desirable view of our limitations and thus 
consequently enable us to take the forward step that will warrant better things. As 
Masons it is our puipose to view honestly what we believe to be our limitations as 
evangels of a gospel for the common good. In older lands than ours Masons are made, 
as a rule, when they are nearing the middle age period of life. The time has then arrived 
apparently when they are capable of giving the maturer consideration to the problems 
and subjects that are dear to the Masonic heart. Let us abolish the tendency of regarding 
our lodge as a social center established for club puiposes. Let us insist that Masons 
young and old read widely, think deeply, and act as Masons ever should. Even so it is 
the desire of the editor of the Library department to lend such aid to the brethren 
through the columns of THE BUILDER that will direct their attention to the 
consideration of those books that are written with devout and earnest desire of ushering 
the wider fellowship where the brotherhood of man will be realized. 

* * * 


"The Ifs of History," by Joseph E. Chamberlain, published by Henry Altemus 
Company, 1326 Vine Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

One thought-provoking little volume on our desk is "The Ifs of History." To those 
interested in whether this old world is advanced and governed by contingency, or by the 
benevolent arbitrary ruling of Deity, the pages of this book will afford a great deal of 
interest. The publishers announce its having had a great amount of attention from many 
review editors. And we may well believe that it challenged many astute thinkers who 
may have chanced to read it. 

Among the many questions asked are: What if Abraham Lincoln's father had gone 
South instead of coming North? What if Washington had gone into the British Navy? 
What if Jackson had not been helped by a pirate in the War of 1812? Enough is here 
suggested, we believe, to indicate the character of this pertinent little book which 
embodies a choice set of "Ifs" antedating Christ to the present moment. 

* * * 


"The Rival Philosophies of Jesus and Paul," by Ignatius Singer. Open Court 
Publishing Company, 122 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Of a different character entirely from the foregoing is "The Rival Philosophies of Jesus 
and Paul." The iconoclast is at work in this book. The scholar, however, is in evidence 
throughout the volume, but we cannot but feel that his Pauline criticisms tend to reveal 
the author out of his province. Orthodoxy is subjected throughout to a caustic treatment, 
No doubt much of it is deserved, but the word of the author will not yet suffice to 
demolish the Apostle Paul or his (Paul's) conceptions of Christianity. While the author 
is eminently fair and certainly enlightening in his gospel analysis and translations of 
sayings purported to Jesus, one constantly feels that his pen has too much acidity in its 
temper toward Paul. 

A perusal of the book will be well worth while, especially to those Masons interested in 
the relationship of the Essenes to the Master. No finer picture, stripped of theological 
millinery, has come from recent hands revealing that wondrous humanity of Him who 
reveals the divine. While it will no doubt be a disturber of the beliefs of many, yet we 
cannot but welcome its challenging observations. 

* * * 


"The War and Preaching," by John Kelman, D. D., published by The Yale University 
Press, 209 Elm Street, New Haven, Conn. Price $1.25 net. 

"The Sword of the Spirit," by Joseph Fort Newton, published at $1.25 net by Geo. H. 
Doran Co., 38 West 32nd St., New York. 

We heartily commend these two volumes to the readers of THE BUILDER. Both are 
pertinent and timely. John Kelman served at the Front and his interpretation of the 
religion of the soldier is remarkably worth while. Critics of the Church will find him a 
stout defender, one conscious of her limitations but one, too, who speaks with authority 
on her future puiposes. Preacher Masons would do well to grace their shelves with this 
little volume. 

Our own beloved Newton speaks in his usual admirable strain and the sermons of this 
volume of his go a long way in confirming his ambassadorship from this land to the one 
across the seas. True interpreter of the American spirit that he is, we feel through these 
sermons that his labor of love will be abundantly blessed. 

* * * 


"Spiritualism: Its History, Phenomena and Doctrine," by J. Arthur Hill, published by 
Geo. H. Doran Co., 38 West 32nd Street, New York, N. Y. Price $2.00. 

The War has without question quickened our interest in the immortality of the soul. 

And from the gleaning of this volume we doubt not but that many souls were comforted 
in their bereavement through the channels of Spiritualism. The author of "Spiritualism: 
Its History, Phenomena and Doctrine," is a remarkable Englishman, a member of the 
Psychical Research Society of Great Britain and consequently has through that 
institution been associated with some of the most prominent scientists of our day who 
like himself are careful and studious investigators of spiritualistic phenomena. The 
world, as this book amply reveals, can no longer slight the convictions of men like 
Professor James of Harvard, Professor Hyslop of Columbia and Sir Oliver Lodge of 
England, in this particular field Their investigations are the work of men committee 
dispassionately to the weighing of evidences in the research for truth. 

The book is written in a lucid style, free from any sort of dogmatic assertion, and 
probably presents the question in as reasonable a light as any book on the subject. We 
confess to having felt quite spooky as we read some parts of it. 

* * * 


"How the Bible Grew," by Frank Grant Lewis. Published by the University of 
Chicago Press, 58th St. and Ellis Ave., Chicago. Price $1.50. 

Here we have a logical account of the natural development of the Holy Book of our 
altar. It is admirable from the point the Bible is revealed to be self interpretative in the 
matter of its growth. 

It is entirely free from the academic strain that makes books of this character hard 
reading and this little volume will lend invaluable assistance to the student of the Great 
Light who desires to give an intelligible answer for the faith that is in him. 

* * * 


"Last Letters from a Living Dead Man," by Elsa Barker. Published by Mitchell 
Kennerley, 15 East 40th St., New York, N. Y. $1.50. 

A well written series of letters, but try as we might we could not feel any pressure from 
beyond the border in the perusal of the book. Once we were about persuaded that God 
must he a Democrat judging from the warm praise that the departed California judge, 
the sender of the messages, accords Mr. Wilson. 

Throughout the volume, however, there is a note of confident optimism for America 
and we would com mend it for its sane patriotic utterances. 

* * * 


"Animism," by George William Gilmore. Published at $1.75 by The Marshall Jones 
Co., 212 Summer St., Boston, Mass. 

Those of the Craft who are interested in cave dwellers and all sorts and conditions of 
primitive worshippers will find a fund of interesting information in a hank entitled 
"Animism," by George William Gilmore. The ample quotations and footnotes indicate 
the breadth of the writer's researches. 

We found the book of gripping interest from beginning to end. The lucid fashion in 
which the author reveals the growing consciousness of man and his tendency to project 
his own experience into things inanimate which he comes to regard as gods to be 
appeased or praised is alone commendation sufficient for the book. Those of 
anthropological or ethnilogical bent will find it a very handy book for their study. 

— o — 


Anatole France, by Lewis Paget Shanks. The Open Court Publishing Co., 122 South 
Michigan Avenue, Chicago. $1.50. 

Education in Ancient Israel, by Fletcher Haiper Swift. The Open Court Publishing Co., 
122 South Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

Religion of Old Glory, Guthrie. Geo. H. Doran Co., 38 West 32nd Street, New York. 

Starvation (Alley) Treatment of Diabetes, Hill Eckman. W. M. Leonard, 101 Tremont 
St., Boston. 

The Evidences of Freemasonry from Ancient Hebrew Records, by Bro. Rabbi J. H. M. 
Chumaceiro. Bloch Pub. Co., 40 East 14th St., New York. 25 cents. 

The Jews and Masonry in the United States before 1810, by Samuel Oppenheim. Bloch 
Pub. Co., 40 East 14th St., New York. 25 cents. 

Masonic Responses for the Blue Lodge. A splendid compilation of chants and odes. 
Hinds Hayden, Eldridge, New York. 

Pacific History Stories, Wagner Pub. Co., 239 Geary St., San Francisco, Calif. 


1915 bound volume of THE BUILDER $ 3 .00 

1916 bound volume of THE BUILDER 3 .00 

1917 bound volume of THE BUILDER 3 .00 

1918 bound volume of THE BUILDER 3.50 

Mackey's Encyclopaedia, 1918 edition, two volumes, black Fabrikoid binding 

The Builders, a story and study of Masonry, by Brother Joseph Fort Newton. 

Philosophy of Masonry, by Bro. Roscoe Pound, Dean of the Harvard Faw 
School 1.25 

Symbolism of Freemasonry, Mackey 3.15 

True Principles of Freemasonry, Grant 2.00 
Speculative Masonry, MacBride 2.00 

Early History and Antiquities of Masonry, Fort 7.50 

Concise History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould, English Edition 4.50 

1 722 Constitutions (reproduced by photographic plates from an original copy in the 
archives of the Iowa Masonic Fibrary, Cedar Rapids.) Edition limited to 1,000 
copies 2.00 

"The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," by P.G.M. Barry, Iowa, red buffing 
binding, gilt lettering, illustrated 1 .25 

"The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," paper covers .50 

Further Notes on the Comacine Masters, Ravenscroft, illustrated 


Symbolism of the Three Degrees, Street, (pamphlet) .35 

Symbolism of the First Degree, Gage, (pamphlet) . 1 5 

Symbolism of the Third Degree, Ball, (pamphlet) .15 

Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite, (pamphlet) .15 

— o — 


THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its 
contributors writes under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. 
Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research 
Society, as such, does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against 
another, but offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving each to 
stand or fall by its own merits. 

The Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society 
at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from our 
members, particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are following 
our "Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be answered 
promptly by mail before publication in this department. 


Is General Pershing a Mason? - W.W.D., Virginia. 

John Joseph Pershing (now General) petitioned Lincoln Lodge No. 19, A.F. & A.M., 
Lincoln, Nebr., for the degrees on Nov. 6th, 1888. He received the Entered Apprentice 
degree on Dec. 4th, 1 888, was passed to the degree of a Fellow Craft on Dec. 1 1th, 
1888, and raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason on Dec. 22nd, 1888. He 
remained a member of Lincoln Lodge until March 16th, 1900, when he was suspended 
for nonpayment of dues. On Dec. 4th of the same year (1900) he was reinstated and 
granted a dimit at the same meeting. It is presumed that he took his dimit from Lincoln 
Lodge for the puipose of affiliating with a lodge in the Philippines where he was 
located after leaving Lincoln, but Brother Newton C. Comfort, Grand Secretary of the 
Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands, advises us that Brother Pershing did not affiliate 
with any lodge in the Philippines, although he was active among the Masons of that 
country in the early days and was at one time President of "Bamboo Oasis," a Shriner's 
association. During the larger part of his stay in the Islands he was in portions where 
there were no lodges. In a recent conversation with one of the members of the Masonic 
Overseas Mission in France he stated that he still carried his dimit. 

* * * 


Are the degrees of Cryptic Masonry (the Royal, Select and Super Excellent Masters' 
degrees) of Scottish Rite origin ? Where can a history of them be obtained? 

B. H. J., California. 

In 1914a committee of Maryland Companions, of which Companion Gustav A. Eitel 
was chairman, prepared a report for their Grand Council setting forth the claims of both 
the Scottish Rite and those dissenting from the Scottish Rite theory of the origin, 
introduction and dissemination of the Cryptic degrees which we expect to publish in an 
early forthcoming issue of THE BUILDER. 

Brothar Wm. F. Kuhn, of Missouri, has been assigned the task of preparing an up-to- 
date history of these degrees for presentation to the General Grand Council at their 
coming Triennial Assembly and has promised us a copy of his.findings as soon as they 
are prepared. We are also hopeful of an article from Brother Warvelle, of Illinois, in the 
near future giving us the results of his latest studies of the subject. 

* * * 


How many Grand Lodges are there in Canada, and when were they respectively 
organized? R.J.T., Texas. 

Alberta, 1905; British Columbia, 1871; Ontario (Grand Lodge of Canada, having 
jurisdiction only in Ontario), 1855; Manitoba, 1875; New Brunswick, 1867; Nova 
Scotia, 1866; Prince Edward Island, 1874; Quebec, 1869; Saskatchewan, 1906. 

* * * 


A desire to learn something of the history of the author of “The Man of Mount Moriah” 
prompts me to put this question up to you: “Does Clarence Miles Boutelle still live and 
can his bsography be secured?” C.A., Indiana. 

Brother Boutelle died at Marshall, Minn., September 16, 1903. A sketch of his life will 
be found in Volume I of THE BUILDER, page 94. 

* * * 


Do the Councils of Cryptic Masonry of the State of Kentucky confer the Super 
Excellent Masters degree following the conference of the Royal and Select Master’s 
degrees? W.P.M., Texas. 

Yes. It can be conferred by any Council in the State of Kentucky. Many of the smaller 
Councils do not work the degree on account of the difficulty in securing a proficient 
working team, but the members generally obtain the degree from the larger Councils. A 
degree team from one Council will go to another Council and confer the degree upon a 
large class of candidates from the local and surrounding Councils. The work is 
generally done by the Councils located in Lexington, Louisville, Newport and 

Owing to the elaborateness of the degree the same custom is followed, we believe, in 
the majority of other Jurisdictions. 

* * * 


Can you publish a list of the Masonic Clubs that have been organized in France since 
our boys went over there, and where such Clubs are located? F.R.B., Illinois. 

We do not have a complete list of these organizations but give the following from a 
Directory published by the Trowel and Triangle Club, Paris: 

Aix (Savoie) Masonic Club; President, Senator Benson of California. 

Beaune (Cote-d’Or), American Masonic Club of Beaune; meets Friday; Secretary, A. 
Paterson, Y.M.C.A., A.P.O. 909. 

Bitburg (Germany) Middle West Masonic Club of the Third Army; Secretary, C.C. 

Blois (Foir-et-Cher) Masonic Club; President, Captain E. Q. Jackson, A.P.O. 726. 

Bordeaux (Gironde) Masonic Club; Vice-President, Captain James D. Hatch, A.P.O. 

Brest (Finistere) Acacia Club; First Battalion, 1 10th Engineers, A.P.O. 911. 

Brest (Finistere) Masonic Club; Secretary, Coiporal Henning H. Wallman, Motor 
Transport Corps, Service Park Units, A.P.O. 71R 

Brion-Sur-Ource (Cote-d’Or) Stonewall Masonic Club; meets Tuesdays and Thursdays; 
Secretary, Coiporal Young, A.P.O. 791. 

Camp Coetquidan (Morbihan) Knights of the Forest 102 Masonic Club; Secretary, 
Sergeant F. W. Foss, 102d Field Artillery, A.P.O. 709. 

Camp de Souge (Gironde) Masonic Club; meets Wednesdays; President, Sergeant 
Boas, A.P.O. 705. 

Camp de Valdahon (Doubs) 140 Field Artillery Masonic Club; Secretary, Clarence B. 

Camp Villebemier Masonic Club; Secretary, Sergeant James H. Hay, 6th Company, 
14th Grand Division, A.P.O. 718. 

Chateauroux (Indre) Masonic Club of Base Hospital 63; Secretary, Second Lieutenant 
Harold B. Pool, Sanitary Coips A.P.O. 738. 

Chatillon-Sur-Seine (Seine) Social Ten Brothers; Secretary, R. S. Karesh, 20th 
Company, 4th Motor Mechanical Regiment Air Service, A.P.O. 730. 

Chaumont (Haute-Mame) Good Fellowship Masonic Club; meets first and third 
Tuesdays; President, Captain A. C. Howard Post Quartermaster, A.P.O. 706. 

Clamecy (Nievre) Masonic Society; Secretary, H. C. Bishop, Army Field Clerk, 
Infantry School, A.P.O. 786. 

Coblenz (Germany) Third Army Masonic Club; President, Major W. S. Solomon; 
Secretary, Lieutenant Aldrich, A.P.O. 927 

Genicart (Gironde) Fellowcraft Club of the 58th Artillery; Secretary, F. A. H. Kampfer, 
A.P.O. 705a. 

Gievres (Loir-et-Cher) Trowel Club; President, W. R. Bristow, A.P.O. 713. 

Gondrecourt ( Meuse ) Masonic Club; Secretary, Ray M. Dille 

Grenoble (lsere) Acacia Club of the Union; A.P.O. 923 

Heather Hill Masonic Club; Secretary, Sergeant First Ciass A. G. Wyant, Company B. 
13th Engineers, A.P.O. 907. 

Issoudun (Indre) Masonic Club; President, Captain Clayton 

Is-Sur-Tille (Cote-d’Or) Washington-Lafayette Masonic Club; Secretary, Sergeant 
Leonard A. Wilcox, Supply Company, Quartermaster Coips 307, A.P.O. 712. 

Laigne-en-Belin (Sarthe) Masonic Club; meets Wednesdays; President, F. W. Butler, 
103d Infantry, 76th Division. 

Langres (Haute-Mame) Masonic Club, A.P.O. 714. 

Le Mans (Sarthe) American Masonic Club, President, H. B. Mook, Y.M.C.A. 

Liboume (Gironde) Craftsmen Club; A.P.O. 911. 

Marseille (Bouches-du-Rhone) American Expeditionary Forces Masonic Club; 
Secretary, Second Lieutenant F. D. Redwine, A.P.O. 752. 

Mars-Sur-Allier (Nievre) Masonic Society; A.P.O. 780. 

Mayen (Germany) Masonic Club; Secretary, Private George P. Eberle, Headquarters 
Company, 30th Infantry, A.P.O. 740. 

Mehun Masonic Club; Secretary, Private R. L. Marsh, Section 2, Ordnance Company, 
U.S. Troops, A.P.O. 741. 

Mon Rivage Square and Compass Club. 

Montierchaume (Indre) Fellowcraft Club; President, T. J. Phillips, A.P.O. 738. 

Montpellier (Herault) Peyru Masonic Club; meets first and third Mondays; A.P.O. 949. 

Nantes (Loire-Inferieure) Masonic Club; Evacuation Hospital 1; Secretary, Joseph E. 

Neuenahr (Germany) Forty-Second Masonic Club (Rainbow Division) . 

Nevers (Nievre) American Masonic Club; Secretary, Captain Frank A. Starr, Engineers 
Corps, A.P.O. 708. 

Nice (Alpes-Maritimes) Riveria Masonic Club; President, James C. Gipe, Y.M.C.A. 

Paris Masonic Club; meets Mondays; Governor, Lt. Colonel Whitney; Recording 
Secretary, Merwin W. Lay; Corresponding Secretary, Cass Connaway; Treasurer, M. E. 
Waite; 10 Avenue Victor Emmanuel III, Paris. 

Pontenex-les-Forges (Landes) Masonic Club of 503d Engineers, Service Battalion; 
Secretary, Private L. W. Bowes, Company B. Base Section 1. 

Romorantin (Loir-et-Cher) Square and Compass Masonic Club; President, Captain 
Holmes, Barracks 1006, A.P.O. 713a. 

Saint- Aignan Masonic Club of Camp Hospital 26; Secretary, Sergeant Bernard 
Ettinger, A.P.O. 727. 

Saint-Florentin (fonne) Masonic Club of 66th Engineers; Secretary, Sergeant G. A. 
Collister, Company 73, 66th Regiment Transportation Coips, A.P.O. 702. 

Saint-Nazaire (Loire-Inferieure) Masonic Club; Secretary, Hall G. Van Vlack, Base 
Section 1, A.P.O. 701. 

Souilly (Meuse) Masonic Club; Secretary, Wm. Clark Seab, 1 14th Field Signal 
Battalion, A.P.O. 771. 

Souilly (Meuse) Twenty-Third Engineers Masonic Club; Chairman, A. W. Provost, 
A.P.O. 701. 

Toulouse (Haute-Garonne) University of Toulouse Masonic Club; Secretary, Louis S. 

Tours (Indre-st-Loire) Acacia Club; Colonel George M. Newell, Quartermaster Coips, 
A.P.O. 717. 

Vemeuil (Nievre) Masonic Club; President, Captain Van Hise, 303d Motor 
Trans fportation Coips, A.P.O. 772. 

Vicenza (Italy) Square and Circle Masonic Club; Secretary, Derval Jones, Advanced 

Vichy (Allier) Masonic Club; meets Sundays; Base Hospital Centpr 5 

— o — 



I have read with intense interest the compiled facts and narrative of the magnificent 
effort made by the American Craft to be permitted to discharge its duty without any 
expense to the American Nation, or to the Allies outside of the War Area in Europe, 
and deeply deplore that any Government, on its own initiative or as the result of 
influence, should have curbed in any way the natural benevolent and humane desires of 
the most loyal non-sectarian, non-political and most beneficient non-secret Society ever 
known to the world, and I think THE BUILDER has added another service to the Craft 
in publishing the irrefutable facts. 

I see in at least two places in the correspondence that Masonry is stated as being a 
secret Society. Surely this is a mistake. Our lodges do not meet in secret: it is well 
known where they respectively meet, and though we have secrets not disclosed to the 
outsider, we in no way, I think, come under the category of a secret Society. 

Alexander Corrie, District Grand Master, 
District Grand Lodge of Freemasons of England, 

* * * 


The article in the August number of THE BUILDER which relates the progress of the 
Masonic Overseas Mission is one which cannot fail to interest all members of the Craft. 

Under existing conditions, no single subject of greater importance could be discussed in 
your columns than that of the part which the Masonic Order endeavored to play in the 
Great War. 

At first glance it seems pitifully small for brethren bound together by a tie such as ours - 
for a fraternity based on a foundation of the noblest principles. One can but feel that 
there was dereliction of duty somewhere, that an apathetic mist enshrouded those who 
should have been first to aid in dispelling the gloom of dark war clouds. 

Here was a call to labor worth while, our brothers-in-arms were confident that it would 
not remain unanswered. 

How few Masons know of the stumbling blocks set in the path, so adroitly placed as to 
be well-nigh invisible, and of the untiring efforts of the Mission to remove them. 

First approved, then set aside, later an attempt to antagonize the authorities of Grand 
Lodge and Supreme Council, the wearying delays - all should be published for the 
information of those 200,000 Masons who went "over there" and the almost 2,000,000 
brethren "over here" who were eager to aid and assist. Curtis G. Culin Jr., New Jersey 

* * * 


Referring to the query of M. I. M. in the August Question Box as to a book on the 
sources of the gold used for Solomon’s Temple, I am thinking that he may have in mind 
"The Voyage of Ithobal," by Sir Edwin Arnold. 

This work is based on the statement of Herodotus that Neco, Pharaoh of Egypt, when 
he had finished his canal from the Nile to the Arabian Gulf, called for a volunteer from 
among the great sea captains of his time who would lead an expedition into the southern 
waters and the great unknown. He was to return by the Pillars of Hercules and the 
Northern Sea. 

The quest was undertaken by Ithobal, a Phoenician, who returned after three years with 
much treasure and wondrous experiences, the most incredible being that he had found a 
land where the sun was on the right hand as he had voyaged westward, and made the 
first journey around the African continent. 

I venture to suggest this book, because Masonry plays queer tricks at times, especially 
in associating ideas of similar type. Then, too, the Phoenicians were the greatest 
seafaring nation of the age in which Solomon is supposed to have lived, yet in much 
reading of the legends which preserve the tradition of an Atlantian continent, I do not 
remember any traceable to the enteiprise in trade and discovery of that nation. And it 
seems probable that they would attempt such a voyage, for Solon has reported the 
statement made to him by priests of Egypt of the great land far to the west of the Pillars 
of Hercules, which had been destroyed by the wrath of the gods, and from which their 
own land in its earliest history appears to have been colonized. N.W.J. Haydon, 

* * * 


During six months' service at the U. S. Naval Base, Plymouth, Devon, England, I had 
the great pleasure of frequent visits to a number of the thirty- five lodges in that city of 
210,000 population. Many of the customs of our English brethren struck me as worthy 
of emulation. 

The Masonic charities are largely supported by contributions of individual members 
and are not dependent upon large bequests or gifts, or lodge fund contributions. The 
charity funds of the lodges are largely kept up by the penny collections taken at each 
meeting, including those of the School, and to which all contribute whether members or 

The Provincial Masonic funds, such as the Devon Widows’ Fund, Devon Educational 
Fund, Fortescue Fund, etc., are all supported by the monies collected by the Charity 
Stewards of the lodges. For example, the Steward will ask for and collect from each 
member at each communication the contribution of, say, not less than a shilling. For 
each guinea, i.e., twenty-one shillings, so raised there is a vote at the annual meeting of 
the Fund as to the beneficiary, and often the members draw lots for the honor of voting. 
The well-to-do members will contribute a guinea or so each year, and thus be entitled to 
a vote. On special anniversaries, such as the lodge's 25th, or the 10th of the Provincial 
Grand Master, the lodge will celebrate by contributing a guinea to each of the 
Provincial Charity Funds. 

Then, too, each member of a lodge, physically able, is expected to attend every 
communication, or send an excuse by letter or by another member, so the attendance is 
very high. The membership of Devon lodges runs from as few as thirty- five in country 
lodges to one hundred and fifty in several Plymouth lodges, and a local lodge having 
nearly two hundred members was forming a new lodge from its membership. Dual 
membership is permitted and is not uncommon. 

There is no uniform ritual prescribed by the Grand Fodge of England. The subordinate 
lodges install always in the same month as their first installation, so that there are 
installations every month of the year. 

In Devon the Tyler examines visitors and prepares the candidates. 

As I was leaving Plymouth aboard the U.S.S. Zeppelin on April 7th, my Christmas box 
arrived, and I had just enough time to open it and send ashore in the mail, addressed to 
The Devon and Cornwall Freemasons' Club, Princess Square, Plymouth, a souvenir 
album of our Philadelphia Temple, some picture postals and booklets of the Masonic 
Homes at Elizabethtown, Penna. On my return this trip to the U. S. A. I found a letter of 
thanks from the Secretary of the Club, from which I take the following extracts, which 
may be of interest to you: 

"You certainly have a magnificent structure, worthy of the best traditions of Masonry, 
atnd which every Freemason must be proud to own. The brethren of every nationality 
must share equally with yourselves the beautiful surroundings in which Freemasonry is 
practiced, as we are taught the first place we are made a Mason is in "our heart," 
consequently we are a universal brotherhood and should share in the joys and sorrows 
of each and every Mason. 

"Nothing has given the brethren in the whole of England greater pleasure than that of 
entertaining and holding out the hand of good fellowship to our American confreres 
during the time you have been sojourning among us, and I am sure the hospitality of the 
lodges in the western part of England has not only been a duty, but we have profited by 
meeting such splendid specimens of the New World Freemasons. 

"There is one great thing which this World War has been instrumental in bringing 
about, and that is the application of Freemasonry universal, as we have had members 
besides yourselves from nearly every nation in the world, and we have been mutually 
delighted at meeting each other. I am becoming more and more convinced that the 
precepts of our Order, if carried out in their entirety, would bring about the 
consummation of our highest hopes, that of a true and lasting Peace agreeable to all." 

Apropos to the article in THE BUILDER last September, on the arrangement of the 
lesser lights, in Devon they are placed on the pedestals of the officers, and the Secretary 
and Treasurer use a long joint desk situated in the north near the east. 

I have noticed in several autobiographies of Englishmen that they do not neglect to state 
that they were Masons, and in one autobiography nearly half a chapter is given to 
accounts of various Masonic functions which they attended. On the other hand 
Americans seem to avoid mention of their Masonic connections in their biographies. A. 
H. Vail, Pennsylvania. 

* * * 


There has been so much uncertainty in the minds of many of the members of the 
Fraternity as to the actual number of members in the United States that I have taken the 
matter up with the Grand Secretaries of the Grand Lodges in an endeavor to compile a 
correct statistical table, and the following is the result: 

















District of 
















48, 157 

























New Hampshire 


New Jersey 


New Mexico 


New York 


N Carolina 


North Dakota 










Rhode Island 


S Carolina 

19 636 

South Dakota 














West Virginia 








Frank B. Ladd, California. 

* * * 


To my mind the matter of the secrets of Masonry presents a great field for the 
imagination of different temperaments to draw upon. Perhaps no two get the same 
spiritual and moral results out of the Order. What these two differentations may be 
constitutes the margin of secrets as between them and whatever they both fail to draw 
from its almost immeasurable supply comprises the margin of what is on beyond them, 
but for them, the secrets of Masonry to them till their vision is so addressed. 

There is much in the Masonic inner soul that is quite undefinable. It has its secret 
impressions upon the mind according to the receptiveness of the receiver. 

Few men, perhaps, attain to the vision of what Masonry, by its Builders, was intended 
to comprehend. It is in this field, this unlimited, this "unexplored remainder," wherein 
to most of us may be said to exist the real and the countless imagined secrets of 

It might be said in a broader way that the secrets of Masonry are those things that the 
initiate has to leam and may leam in becoming a member of the Craft. This is what, 
more than all else, comprises Masonry's pull upon the imagination of those seeking its 
degrees and, in its way which is undefinable, holds its influence upon the greater public. 

It is truly of no use to spin theories as to what the secrets of Masonry really are. Beyond 
the practicability of the system few have any concern. But he who may set to his vision 
the glass that may have been ground by some Masonic wizard may find that there is 

much beyond the common view, and this margin may constitute what may be as 
countless as the stars, the secrets of Masonry to most of the rest of us who are merely 
mortal men. 

L. B. Mitchell, Michigan.